地理学报 ›› 1999, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (S1): 47-54.doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1007

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

国际河流水资源分配模式研究

何大明1, Hsiang-teKung2, 苟俊华1   

  1. 1. 云南省地理研究所,昆明650223;
    2. The University of Memphis, TN 38152, USA
  • 收稿日期:1998-07-20 修回日期:1998-10-25 出版日期:1999-12-15 发布日期:1999-12-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金“九五”重点项目(49631020);云南省自然科学基金“九五”重点项目(96D012Z)

STUDY ON ALLOCATION MODELS OF WATER RESOURCES IN INTERNATIONAL RIVERS

He Daming1, Hsiang - te Kung2, Gou Junhua1   

  1. 1. Yunnan Institute of Geography, Kunming 650223;
    2. The University of Memphis, TN 38152, USA
  • Received:1998-07-20 Revised:1998-10-25 Online:1999-12-15 Published:1999-12-15
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the key Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.49631020; Supported by the key Project of the Provincial Natural Science Foundation of Yunnan, No.96D012Z

摘要: 我国国际河流的数量和水资源量都名列世界前茅,每年约有4000×108m3水流出境。此部分水资源与下游各国的合理分配和公平利用,影响到与沿边15个接壤国的区域合作和国内近1/3国土的可持续发展。本文跟踪世界国际河流开发和管理趋势,分析了国际水资源分配的主要目标和影响因素,归纳出三种分配模式,并进行综合评价。

关键词: 国际河流, 水资源分配, 模式研究

Abstract: China ranks in among front row countries in the world in terms of number of international rivers and itswater resources quantity. Every year, about 4 000 x 108 m3 run-off goes out of China. The reasonable alloca-tion and equitable utilization of this portion of water resources among China and the lower riparian countrieswill have impacts to the regional cooperation between China and the fifteen neighboring countries as well asthe sustainable development of the nearly one third territory of China.In order to deal with the allocation of international water resources, there are usually three lawful docu-ments to be needed; (1) signing the agreement which certifies the water rights and principles of water alloca-tion; (2) institutions for implementation and monitoring; (3) the technological plans of water allocation (thetechnique agreement) .When we allocate the international water resources, we usually coordinate the conflicts of four major ob-jects of social, economic, environmental and safety. And also, we should fully take account of three majorfactors; (l) the present purposes of water uses; (2) the future purposes of water uses; (3) the priorities ofwater uses.there are often three models of international water allocation; (1) the global allocation; (2) the projectallocation; (3) the integrated basin plan allocation.The first one is to allocate all water resources certified in river basin to all riparian countries according totheir acceptable rules.The second one is to allocate the water resources, which is developed and controlled by a special pro-ject, to those parties related to the project without taking account of the basin - wide comprehensive planningand its global water allocation, The last one is that the treaty parties of river basin area allocate the water re-sources certified in the development planning among them.Which one of these allocation models is the best and should be chosen in practice? It depends on thestatus of development and management of a river, the relationship between riparian countries, and the cooper-ative levels of them. According to the trend of integrated development and coordinated management of riversystem, and for the purposes of sustainable utilization of water resources and the conservation of river’ s eco-logical system, the integrated basin plan allocation model is the best choice.

Key words: intemational rivers, water resources, allocation model

中图分类号: 

  • TV213.2