地理学报 ›› 1999, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (s1): 1-10.doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1001

• 论文 •    下一篇

中国国际河流可持续发展研究

何大明1, 刘昌明2, 杨志峰3   

  1. 1. 云南省地理研究所,昆明650223;
    2. 中国科学院地理研究所,北京100101;
    3. 北京师范大学,北京100875
  • 收稿日期:1998-08-10 修回日期:1998-12-20 出版日期:1999-12-15 发布日期:1999-12-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金“九五”重点项目(49631020);云南省自然科学基金“九五”重点项目(96D012Z)

STUDY FOR THE SUSTAINABILITY OFINTERNATIONAL RIVERS IN CHINA

He Daming1, Liu Changming2, Yang Zhifeng3   

  1. 1. Yunnan Institute of Geography, Kunming. Yunnan 650223;
    2. Institute of Geography,CAS, Beijing 100101;
    3. Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875
  • Received:1998-08-10 Revised:1998-12-20 Online:1999-12-15 Published:1999-12-15
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the key Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.49631020; Supported by the key Project of the Provincial Natural Science Foundation of Yunnan, No.96D012Z

摘要: 中国拥有国际河流的数量和水量均居世界各国前茅,它们的公平合理利用和协调管理,影响到全国近1/3国土的可持续发展和与沿边15个接壤国、30个跨境民族、2.2×104km以上国境线的区域国际合作和睦邻友好,涉及到20个流域国(含中国)约30亿人口的生活。特别是这些国际河流跨境共享淡水资源的公平合理利用和协调管理,更涉及亚洲地区的稳定和社会安全。本文结合当前世界国际河流可持续发展的趋势,首次就下列问题进行了综合分析:①中国国际河流的类型、分布、特点;②开发利用现状、趋势和存在的问题;③可借鉴的国际公平合理利用和协调管理的思路;④可持续发展的若干战略问题。

关键词: 可持续发展, 国际河流, 中国

Abstract: It is ranked in the front among the countries in the world that China owns a lot of international rivers andrich transboundary water resources.The reasonable utilization and coordinated management of internationalrivers affect the sustainability of about 1/3 territory land, the regional international cooperation of China with15 neighborly countries along the 2.2 x 104 km border, and the life of about 3.0 billion people in 19 ripariancountries (including China).There are more than 40 internr-tional rivers (lakes) in China, in which the tranboundary run-off is occu-pied by 40% of the tola! runoff of China. Each year, there are about 400 x 108 m water flowing out of Chinainto the neighbor countries. They could be classified into two basic types; the contiguous watercourses andsuccessive watercourses. The former concentrates in northeast part of China. The later distribute in northwestand southwest parts of China. Their natural, social, and economic conditions are oolite different each other.Since 1980s, the international river basins have been the major area of international regional cooperationof China with its neighbor countries. For example, the multilateral cooperation of economy and technology inTumen River area is related China, Russia, Mogolia, North Korea, South Korea and Japan; it is facilitatedby UNDP with total investment of US $ 40 billion.Many great international rivers in Asia originate in Qinhai-Tibet plateau and Yuiuian plateau, where iscalled as "Asian’s Water Tower. "The protection and conservation of the ecological environments is very im-portant to China, southeast Asia, south Asia, and West Asia.In order to facilitate the sustainable development of international rivers in the world, there are manypractical approaches to use.(1) Sharing approach. Based on the limited rights, riparian countries purchase the common benefits eachother through cooperative develpment and coordinated management of sharing international rivers.(2) Establishing the institutions of both international and national multi-level cooperation to coordinate the allactions of development and management in river basin area.(3) Integrated development and management in basin-wide.(4) Track-two diplomatic approach, Scientists or experts or scientific working group plays a very importantrole in faciliating information exchanges, knowledge, joint researches, and compromise of confilict mul-tiobjectives among riparian countries.(5) Development in river basin’s with complement of development beyond the basin. The competitive objectsshould be coordinated in a wide scope.(6) Participatory approach.

Key words: sustainability, international rivers, China

中图分类号: 

  • TV213.2