地理学报 ›› 1998, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (4): 365-371.doi: 10.11821/xb199804009

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

乡村概念辨析

张小林   

  • 收稿日期:1997-02-01 修回日期:1997-10-01 出版日期:1998-07-15 发布日期:1998-07-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金资助项目,编号49701005

ON DISCRIMINATION OF RURAL DEFINITIONS

Zhang Xiaolin   

  1. Department of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097
  • Received:1997-02-01 Revised:1997-10-01 Online:1998-07-15 Published:1998-07-15
  • Supported by:
    Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China

摘要: 乡村地理学在我国人文地理学分支学科中发展比较薄弱,一些基本概念的模糊、理论体系的欠缺最为突出。本文试图从多重角度(职业的、生态的、社会文化的)对乡村这一概念进行系统的剖析,认为乡村界定的困难在于乡村本身的动态性、不整合性及相对性,以及城乡连续体这一背景,最后,笔者提出了以乡村性定义乡村的设想。

关键词: 乡村, 城乡连续体, 乡村性

Abstract: Rural Geography is a weak branch of Human Geography in China, especially with regard to its theoretical development and some basic concepts. First of all, this paper analyses rural definitions systematically from a multi dimention point of view (occupational、ecological、socio cultural). As an occupational definition, “rural” means an area where farming is the main mode of production. As far as ecological definitions are concerned, it means a settlement whose population scale is smaller, outside urban area, with rural landscapes showing unmistakable signs of being dominated by extensive use of land, and with discrete spatial units isolated from the outside world. Socio cultural definitions are in terms of clear differences in behavior and attitude between people in rural and urban area, such as ways of life, spatial behavior and aspirations. The author thinks that all the definitions are lack of delimitations of rural totally and essentially. Rural can not be summarized by a simple definition, because it is a complicated and indistinct conception. Difficulties of defining rural lie in dynamic evolution of the whole rural, unconformity among rural elements, relativity between rural and urban, and relevant rural urban continuum, which makes the boundary between rural and urban more indefinite. To a certain extent rural is regarded as areas differing from urban greatly and the difference can be compared in many aspects such as production activities, ways of life, etc. The close extent between urban and rural represents different stages of rural development. The author suggests rurality should take place of rural definitions under the background of urbanization in the world of today. Rurality refers to the manifestation of rural characters which take urban as criteria of reference within a specified area. The author draws his conclusions. First, every region can be looked on as a unity of urbanity and rurality. The more urbanity a region is, the less rurality it will have. Urban and rural are continuous and there is not any broken locality between them. Second, the size of rurality index takes urban as unit of reference. Using different urban criteria can reflect difference of rurality and stages of its development. Finally, rurality is concerned with scale, index and method which are used in our research. We can weaken some rural characteristics and improve regional urbanity in practice such as village town planning and regional planning by estimating rurality index of different areas. In order to be favourable to urban rural planning and management we also need to put forward rural countermeasures concerned correctly.

Key words: rural, urban rural continuum, rurality

中图分类号: 

  • K901