地理学报 ›› 1998, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (3): 245-255.doi: 10.11821/xb199803007

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

泥沙研究的发展趋势和新课题

王兆印   

  1. 国际泥沙研究培训中心,北京100044
  • 收稿日期:1996-09-01 修回日期:1996-12-01 出版日期:1998-05-15 发布日期:1998-05-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金资助项目,No.59425005

OUTLOOK FOR SEDIMENT RESEARCH

Wang Zhaoyin   

  1. International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation, Beijing 100044
  • Received:1996-09-01 Revised:1996-12-01 Online:1998-05-15 Published:1998-05-15
  • Supported by:
    Supported by Natioinal Natural Science Foundation of China

摘要: 根据国内外近年来泥沙运动研究的动向和资料积累,本文探讨了未来泥沙研究的发展趋势和面临的新课题,包括河道运动动力学、河床形态与泥沙输移的关系、非恒定流河床冲刷率、湿地泥沙生态学模拟、河口萎缩和海流输沙、全球产沙和泥沙概算、泥沙造陆、河流自净、土地利用变化的影响、黄河人造高含沙水流输沙入海和人工智能的应用等。

关键词: 泥沙运动力学, 河床演变, 非恒定流, 湿地, 土地利用, 河口萎缩, 人工智能, 人造高含沙水流

Abstract: Mechanics of sediment transport is a branch of basic technical science in which the process of erosion, transportation and deposition of sediment take place under action of gravity, flowing water, wave and wind. The theory of mechanics of sediment transport was developed and the main frame of the science was constructed in 1940s and 1950s. Thence less great breakthroughs were made. Now development of technology and accumulation of knowledge have pushed the science branch at a scratch line for a great leap. Four main directions of the sediment research are: (1) Sediment transport in unsteady flows. The main theories and formulas of sediment dynamics were established based on steady and uniform flows. Nevertheless, the theories and formulas often fail to apply in engineering projects because sediment in nature is transported by unsteady and non uniform flows. It is more often so following development of the application scope and requirement of high accuracy estimation of rate of sediment transport. There is an urgent need for knowledge of sediment transport and river deformation in unsteady flows. (2) Development of boundary sciences. Boundary sciences develop from combination of sediment transport with other sciences, such as a combination with geomorphology created dynamic geomorphology and a combination with environmental science initiated environmental sedimentology. The wet land science is a combination of hydrology, sediment transport and biology. (3) Macroscopic studies. Microscopic studies have revealed the mechanism of grain motion. Macoroscopic studies, on the other hand, can provide a different approach to the dynamics of sediment motion and its result geomorphological evolution. Remote sensing and Geographical Information System will promote macroscopic studies. (4) Computer modelling. Computer modelling have been widely used to solve engineering problems. Two and three dimensional models will be widely used in a seeable future. About 20 new problems, which will possibly become the main growing points of the science, are listed in the paper, for instances, defining the speed of the river motion as the volume swept by the river in unit time. The “force” inducing the river motion is instability of the sediment carrying capacity and oncoming load. An equation of motion is yet to be found and the law of the river motion to be studied. Sediment researchers and engineers have proposed many formulas for bed load transport rate and suspended sediment carrying capacity of flow. Nevertheless, there is no formulas to calculate rate of sediment scour. Studies on this problem is urgently needed for designers of oil pipeline beneath a river bed. Other problems include dynamics of debris flow, dynamics of river mouth shrinkage, sediment transport capacity of sea currents, land creation and delta dynamics, sediment budget, role of sediment in pollutants migration, river decontamination, modelling of wetland development, artificial hyperconcentrated flow, effect of variation in land use on sediment yield and motion, effect of river training and renaturalization, et al.

Key words: mechanics of sediment transport, river channel processes, unsteady flows, wet land, land use, river mouth shrinkage, artificial neural network, artificial hyperconcentraded flow

中图分类号: 

  • P333.4