地理学报 ›› 1998, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (3): 193-201.doi: 10.11821/xb199803001

• 论文 •    下一篇

当前我国港口发展条件分析——兼论上海国际航运中心

任美锷, 杨宝国   

  1. 南京大学海岸与海岛开发国家试点实验室,南京210093
  • 收稿日期:1997-03-01 修回日期:1997-11-01 出版日期:1998-05-15 发布日期:1998-05-15

FACTORS AFFECTING PORT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING CENTER

Ren Mei-e, Yang Baoguo   

  1. State Pilot Laboratory of Coast & Island Exploitation, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093
  • Received:1997-03-01 Revised:1997-11-01 Online:1998-05-15 Published:1998-05-15

摘要: 本文根据我国社会主义市场经济体制及国际上船舶大型化与海洋货运集装箱化趋势,详细讨论了当前和21世纪初我国港口发展条件。认为社会、经济条件及人为作用对我国港口发展将起越来越大的作用,传统的“以港兴市”概念已不尽适用。建设上海国际航运中心是当前我国港口建设中的一件大事。上海国际航运中心将以组合港形式组建,包括一个中心港,即上海港,两个次中心港,即北仑港和太仓港,以及若干主要的支线港和喂给港。各港应合理分布,优势互补,避免重复建设和不必要的竞争。当前各港口的普遍问题是运输效率低,每个泊位的通过能力小,应迅速采取有效措施,加以解决。

关键词: 港口, 集装箱运输, 上海国际航运中心, 北仑港, 太仓港

Abstract: This paper discusses factors affecting current and future port development in China under Chinese market economy and increasingly larger size of ocean freighters and containerization of cargo. These factors are: (1) physical conditions. It is still the most important factor to affect the port development. Water depth, wave condition and land space adjacent to the port are some of the key factors to determine the port development. Along with the process of containerization, the water depth of the navigation channel will be at least 15 m. (2) hinterland. A port should have an extensive hinterland. With the rapid development of economy and transportation in China, the scope of hinterland has changed greatly. (3) containerization. Containerization is one of the most remarkable characteristics of the current ocean transportation; throughput of containers is the most important factor in the ranking of world’s ports. A container ship of the fifth generation which has been put into use in China can load more than 5 000 TEU . Meanwhile, containerization has also changed the distributing way of port cargo, express way instead of traditional shipment will be the main means for distribution. Container shipping lines and frequency of departure of container ships are also two of the important factors to determine the distributing conditions. Because of limited ocean container ship routes and frequency of departure of container ships, Shanghai will be only a regional container shipping center during a given time. (4) fresh water resources. Fresh water resources often determine the port scale. (5) support of great cities and large enterprises. Great cities and large enterprises will supply plenty of cargoes and excellent distributing conditions, their strong support will fasten the port development. (6) port service system. Port service system will ensure the efficient work of the port. Except Hongkong, efficiency of container transport in China is still low and has a long way to go to improve her position in international container shipping market. A preliminary conclusion is : socio economic factors and human actions are exerting greater influence on development of Chinese ports, while the traditional notion “port as the base of city development” is no longer totally true. The construction of shanghai International Shipping Center has great significance in port development of the whole country. It will be a port group, consisting of a center port——Shanghai, two sub center ports Beilun on the south and Taicang on the north, and a number of major tributary and feeder ports. A rational division of port functions is of utmost importance so that favorable conditions fo one port could be used to help less favored ports and duplication in berth construction and irrational competition among ports could be avoided. Shanghai as a center port of Changjiang delta must also be a container hub port. For improving the transportation efficiency and economic benefit, container shipping should be concentrated in Shanghai, for it has several advantages except the limitation of water depth. Beilun should fully take advantage of her deepwater and develop inter continental container traffic, however, its development is limited by the small hinterland, poor port service system, fewer ocean container ship routes, so it needs to be greatly innovated to meet the demand of sub center port of Shanghai international shipping center. Taicang has the best conprehensive conditions. It will be constructed jointly by Jiangsu province, Suzhou city and COSCO. Taicang has the Suzhou city and Wuxi city as its direct hinterland, these two cities will supply plenty of containers, and good distributing conditions. As one of the investors, the construction of International COSCO city in Taicang will be speed up to catch the development of Shanghai International Shipping Center, COSCO is the fourth largest ocean container carrier in the world, with her support, it can be foreseen that new ocean container ship routes will be opened from Taicang to all over the world.

Key words: Shanghai International Shipping Center, port development, Beilun, Taicang

中图分类号: 

  • U651