地理学报 ›› 1998, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (1): 13-23.doi: 10.11821/xb199801002

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国乡镇企业外向型经济发展的基本态势及省际差异

樊杰1, W.陶普曼2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理研究所,北京100101;
    2. 德国不莱梅大学地理系,德国不莱梅
  • 收稿日期:1996-02-01 修回日期:1996-06-01 出版日期:1998-01-15 发布日期:1998-01-15
  • 基金资助:
    国际合作课题“中国农村城镇化”的部分研究成果。该项课题受德国大众汽车基金会(Volkswagen-Stiftung)和香港王宽诚-德国DAAD科研奖学金(K.C.Wong-DAAD Forschungss tipendium)的共同资助.

OUTWARD ORIENTED ACTIVITIES OF CHINA’S RURAL ENTERPRISES: DEVELOPMENT AND PROVINCIAL DIFFERENCES

Fan Jie1, Wolfgang Taubmann2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciencs, Beijing 100101;
    2. University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • Received:1996-02-01 Revised:1996-06-01 Online:1998-01-15 Published:1998-01-15

摘要: 乡镇企业在中国外向型经济的发展过程中发挥着越来越重要的作用,1993年,乡镇企业出口交货额同全国外贸出口总额之比已达到44.5%.本文以出口乡镇企业的增长态势、行业结构的变化以及地域分布特征等为研究主线,结合最近几年“三来一补”这种特殊的外向型企业形式的空间积聚过程、外商在乡村企业投资以及乡镇“三资”企业的省际分布差异和最新变化趋势的研究,利用因子分析和聚类分析等统计方法,综合探讨了中国乡镇企业外向型经济在全国外向型经济体系中地位的演变、省际发展水平和省际行业结构类型的差异等问题。

关键词: 乡镇企业, 外向型经济, 出口, 三来一补, 三资企业, 外资

Abstract: Of the great changes that happened in the social and economic field during the reform of more than 10 years the development of outward oriented economy and rural enterprises were two outstanding aspects. The former promoted the transfer of China’s economic system from a closed to a completely open one; the latter brought about the change of rural economic structure from an agricultural to a non agricultural one which mainly concentrated on the development of industry. The combination of two aspects——the development of outward oriented economy in rural enterprise——inevitably becomes one of the important issues China is confronted with in current economic development. The rural enterprises play a more and more important role in China’s outward oriented economy. The share of export goods delivery value of rural enterprises in that of all export increased from only 9.19% in 1986 to 44.47% in 1993. The reasons accounting for that rapid growth were as follows. 1) The industrial structure of rural enterprises which took light industry and textile industry as the pillars was nearly identical with the composition of export commodities. 2) The majority of the rural enterprises had a small size, which was beneficial for the reception of a small amount of foreign investment and at the same time they were good at doing short term business, taking on urgent tasks and small batch production and were relatively powerful in risking bankruptcy. 3) Abundant and cheap labour forces were the fundament for the rural enterprises to get higher profit and to increase their capacity for competition. 4) Extensive and intensive relations with overseas Chinese maintained by provincialism played a very important role in introducing foreign investment and marketing products. There were great regional differences in the development level of outward oriented economy. The export value of rural enterprises was highest in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong and Guangdong. The share of these 6 provinces in that of the whole country increased between 54% and 76%. Due to the outward processing of HK, 95% of the enterprises income came from processing and assembling provided raw materials, component parts, and samples, and from compensation trade generated by these kinds of enterprises in Guangdong province. 94% of the output value of the enterprises with foreign investment came from the coastal area which resulted in a great disparity between the interior and the coasta provinces. In recent years more foreign investment fell on the interior provinces. In 1992, foreign investment in the coastal areas decreased to 78%. Using factor analysis the development level of the outward oriented economy of provinces with regard to export, foreign investment and the development of the enterprises with foreign investment was classified as 7 grades and the map was drawn to show the regional differences. The structure of the outward oriented economy has changed. In the early 80’s the share of primary mineral products, animal products, arts and crafts articles, and textile products, all with low benefit and low added value, took up a large part of the export goods. By 1992, the proportion of these products decreased and the share of textile, products of light industry, chemicals and related products, and machinery increased. There was a difference in the composition of export goods among the provinces. Using cluster analysis and taking the deviation coefficient, the proportion of the primary sector, the composition of three subordinate sectors as parameters, the industrial structure of the export oriented economy of the provinces was divided into 4 groups which reflect the regional distribution. There were four regional types which were of importance for the development level of the outward oriented economy: 1) the specialized industrial structure of export oriented economy in less developed areas; 2) arts and crafts, food, and textile industry in the coastal area of Boha.

Key words: rural enterprise, outward oriented economy, export, compensation trade, enterprises with foreign investment

中图分类号: 

  • F276.3