地理学报 ›› 1997, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (2): 131-137.doi: 10.11821/xb199702005

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太湖地区环境考古

陈中原, 洪雪晴, 李山, 王露, 史晓明   

  1. 华东师范大学地理系,200062上海
  • 收稿日期:1995-04-01 修回日期:1995-12-01 出版日期:1997-03-15 发布日期:1997-03-15

STUDY OF ARCHAEOLOGYRELATED ENVIRONMENT EVOLUTION OF TAIHU LAKE IN SOUTHERN CHANG JIANG DELTA PLAIN

Chen Zhongyuan, Hong Xueqing, Li Shan, Wang Lu, Shi Xiaoming   

  1. Department of Geography, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062
  • Received:1995-04-01 Revised:1995-12-01 Online:1997-03-15 Published:1997-03-15

摘要: 通过对太湖地区134个新石器遗址考古资料的剖析,并结合钻孔数据,发现本区马家浜至马桥期(7000aBP~3200aBP)以来的古文化发育与三角洲平原的演化关系密切:7000aBP三角洲的建造导致先民在本区逐渐聚集,然而,海平面上升造成环境恶化,但贝壳沙堤的形成保护了先民们的生存环境,使得大量先民移居冈身后缘栖身,但最终由于地下水位的上升和江水回灌造成太湖湖泊群的大量发育,从而抑制了本区自良渚以来古文化的发育。

关键词: 环境考古, 贝壳堤, 太湖, 海平面, 长江三角洲

Abstract: The southern Chang Jiang delta plain is primarily characterized by the Taihu Lake and chenier ridges distributed in the eastern coast of China. This plain is well known due to its distinctive sedimentological/geomorphologic formation and many Neolithic sites. The region records considerably the Neolithic history of our ancestor’s settlement related to environmental changes in terms of delta construction and eustatic fluctuation. Mainly obtaining detailed information from Neolithic culture and numerous Neolithic sites, in association with many sediment boreholes, this paper primarily focuses on the southern delta plain evolution, especially the origin of Taihu lake and chenier ridges directly affected by eustatic sea level rise since the mid Holocene. The geomorphological processes will also provide invaluable insights into the evolution of Neolithic culture. In fact, the Chang Jiang delta began to form approximately at the 7 000 aBP, this coincidentally brought the of habitable environment for our ancestors, who apparently moved down from the highlands, west of the Taihu lake. It is revealed that there was a tendency of residential migration for our former habitants, progressively from scattered sites in the delta plain to the backside of the chenire ridge, during the 7 000—4 000 aBP. This evidenced that sea level rise aggravated largely the habitable conditions in the study area, in addition to the backside of the chenier ridge, which began to form at the same time as the delta evoluted and is believed to protect the habitants from the Holocene sea invasion. Apparently, outer belt area surrounding the Taihu lake aggraded corresponding to the sea level rise, it eventually turned the former residential area, including Suzhou, Qingpu and Kunshan into a so called Taihu dish like depression. Also, water table rise due to eustatic rise originates the Taihu lake, as well as many small scale fresh water reservoirs in the southern delta plain from 6 000—3 000 aBP. Consequently, the expansion of fresh water reservoir in the study area halted the domicile in the Taihu region in the later period of Liangzu stage.

Key words: study of archaeology related environment evolution, shell ridge Taihu Lake, sea level, Chang Jiang delta

中图分类号: 

  • K87