地理学报 ›› 1997, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (1): 72-79.doi: 10.11821/xb199701009

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

扎赍诺尔晚第四纪孢粉植物群的生态类型探讨

童国榜1, 羊向东2, 王苏民2, 陈祖荫3, 夏良华1   

  1. 1. 地质矿产部水文地质工程地质研究所,正定050803;
    2. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所、湖泊沉积与环境开放研究实验室,南京210008;
    3. 北京民族学院,北京100081
  • 收稿日期:1995-04-01 修回日期:1995-10-01 出版日期:1997-01-15 发布日期:1997-01-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(49172119),中国科学院湖泊沉积与环境开放研究实验室资助项目

ECOTYPE EXPLORATION OF POLYNOFLORA FROM ZHALAINOR SINCE THE LATE QUATERNARY

Tong Guobang1, Yang Xiangdong2, Wang Sumin2, Chong Zhuying3, Xia Lianghua1   

  1. 1. Institute of Hydrogeology And Engineering Geology, MGMR, Zhengding 050803;
    2. Nanjing Institure Of Geography And Limnology, Academia Sinica, Nanjing 210008;
    3. Beijing Polytechnic University, Beijing 100022
  • Received:1995-04-01 Revised:1995-10-01 Online:1997-01-15 Published:1997-01-15

摘要: 本文通过区域表土孢粉工作,应用系统聚类分析、对应分析算法及孢粉分异度(Hs)、均衡度(E)系数,对内蒙古札赍诺尔剖面的孢粉植物群的相对丰度、物种多样性及均衡性进行了研究。结果显示20kaBP以来区域孢粉植物群有7个类型,形成相应的7个生态类型,这些变化详细地记录了冰消期及早、中全新世环境的波动。

关键词: 孢粉植物群, 古生态类型, 晚第四纪, 古呼伦湖

Abstract: According to the sporo pollen data of surface samples from Manzheli to Dayangshu, northern of northeast of China, we apply methods of systomolustor, corrosponding analysis, diffcrcntiatic grado (Hs) and isostatic gradc(E), and discuss the polynoflora abundance, species variety and equitability of Zhalainor. It indicates that the ecotype underwent ten ecological periods which belongs to three stages in the region over the past 13.0kaB.P.: (1) Sylvosteppe stage (10.2—2.9kaB.P.), including steppe mixed coniferous forest (3.2—2.9kaB.P.); steppe scattled pinus, Cupressaceae (5.6—3.2kaB.P.); steppe scattled birch, Quercus and other deciduous trees (6.8—5.6kaB.P.); steppe with birch (7.1—6.8kaB.P.); steppe scattled Pinus, Cupressaceae (10.2—7.1kaB.P.). (2) Steppe and tundra stage (12.9—10.2kaB.P.), including bushland with Betula(10.3—10.2kaB.P.); bushland with Betula and Picea (10.6—10.3kaB.P.); tundra with Betula (10.9—10.6kaB.P.); bushland seattled Bctula, Pieea (12.9—10.9kaB.P.). (3) Tundra (20.0—12.9kaB.P.), inciuding only one ecotype which was bushtundra. In the first phase, the content of trees pollen (mainly conifers such as Pinus, Cupressaceae) was 30%—60%, and sometimes that of deciduous trees (mainly Betula, Quercus, Ulmus) was close to of confers. The type of herbs (mainly Compositac and gramincac) was abundancc, but dryresistant and haloxene plant (Chenopodiaceae) rose relatively at some individual strata. The sporo pollen concentration was 350—5642grains/g, the values of Hs (1.6—2.4)and E (0.3—0.6) were more than those of steppe ceotype, indicating the abundant plant species and quantity. In the second phase, it was occupied by pollen of herbs (80%) which was mainly Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae, and the sporo pollen conccntration was 200—6400 grains/g, Hs and E were 1.4—2.4and 0.2—0.6 respectively. The upper limit of all the values was lower than that of sylvosteppe, indicating the lower species abundance and differentiatic grade of steppe. The ecotype of tundra with Betula appeared in particular layers. In the third phase, the value of herbs and ferns sporo pollen was more than 90%, and that of trees pollen was very low (less than 5%). There were mainly Artemisia, Compositae and Gramineae in herbs, Botrychium in ferns and only a small amount of Betula nana and Picea in shurbs and trees. The sporo pollen concentration was 200—700 grains/g, the values of Hs (1.1—2.2) and E (0.3—0.4) were the lowest in the profile, indicating that the vegetation was rare and monotonous, and the ecotype was in the more miserable condition. In the postglacial period, the range and the oscillation of climate were greatly and frequently, the ecotype alternated between bush steppe and tundra with Betula. The climate and environment in this region can be compared with that of the northern Europe. The environmental change in Holocene was mainly influenced by humidity, in the arid period, the ratio of chenopodiaceae of Artemisia added, while the sporo pollen concentration. Hs and E declined and reduced, and vice versa.

Key words: polynoflora, palaeoecotope, late Quaternary, Hulun lake

中图分类号: 

  • Q913