地理学报 ›› 1996, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (S1): 15-25.doi: 10.11821/xb1996S1002

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

全球变化研究与地理信息系统

陈述彭, 邵宇宾   

  1. 中国科学院国家计划委员会地理研究所,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:1996-11-01 出版日期:1996-12-15 发布日期:1996-12-15

GLOBAL CHANGE AND GEO-INFORMATION SYSTEM

Chen Shupeng, Shao Yubin   

  1. Institute of Geography. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:1996-11-01 Online:1996-12-15 Published:1996-12-15

摘要: 全球变化研究是当今地学领域的热点,也是地球信息科学的核心之一。全球变化侧重研究地球系统各个圈层如大气圈、生物圈、水圈等之间的相互作用以及人类活动对全球环境的影响,与持续发展密切相关。地理信息系统自70年代以来,发展迅速,在资源与环境研究领域有着广泛的应用。目前地理信息系统在我国还处于一个初期阶段,作为一个地域空间信息系统,地理信息系统应该在深层次的科学研究中发挥作用。在全球变化研究中,依托各种尺度的对地观测数据,地理信息系统可以发挥三个方面的作用:一是自然模拟;二是人地关系研究;三是预测预报,以推动全球变化研究和地球信息科学的发展。

关键词: 地域空间, 地球信息科学, 全球变化, 地理信息系统

Abstract: At present, global change is the hot area in geo-science, at the same time, it is also one of the core pans ofgeo-informatics. Global change emphasizes the research on the interaction between the geo-spheres, such as theatmosphere, the biosphere and the hydrological sphere,and on the environmental impacts caused by human beings.Geographic information system(GIS), which has been developing very quickly since 1970s, has been applied to many areas of management of earth resources and environment. But now, GIS is still at its primary stage especially in China, for example only very few of GIS function has been used in the built GIS systems, such assome urban GIS systems built recently in China.From the historical view, that men observe and understand the earth is accelerating in many fields, such as advancement of observing techniques, acquired data amounts and quality etc.. In the space, the earth observingsatellites have been keeping on eyeing our planet and its changes. Much data has been gathered pretty enough formonitoring our environment, and only in this time the each could be studied and understand systematically and onthe global scale.The earth is a very complicated system. In the system much physical process, including gradual changes andsudden changes, exist and sometimes seem hard to predict, and in the unique system, human migration, materialflow, energy flow and information flow interact in its own wad. Observed dsta from space, which is vast andtheme diverse, becomes the base material source to understand global change systematically. But unfortunatelythese data are not fully studied at the present time because of data vastness and method deficiency. As a geospatial information system, GIS should be applied to solve complex problems in geo-science. In global change study, based on observed data of different scales, GIS should be applied tot nature modeling; human-earthrelationship study; pro.jecting and forecasting, and therefore facilitate the global change studies and decisionmakings in the sustainable development planning at present and in the future.

Key words: geo-spatial, geo-informatics, global change, geo-information system

中图分类号: 

  • P90