地理学报 ›› 1996, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (2): 118-126.doi: 10.11821/xb199602004

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

土壤-植被-大气连续体中蒸散过程的数值模拟

刘树华1, 黄子琛2, 刘立超2   

  1. 1. 北京大学地球球物理系,北京100871;
    2. 中国科学院兰州沙漠所,兰州730000
  • 收稿日期:1994-03-01 修回日期:1994-09-01 出版日期:1996-03-15 发布日期:1996-03-15
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院沙坡头沙漠试验研究站基金

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION PROCESS IN THE SOIL-VEGETATION-ATMOSPHERE CONTINUUM

Liu Shuhua1, Huang Zichen2, Liu Lichao2   

  1. 1. Department of Geophysics,Peking University,Beijing 100871;
    2. Institute of Desert Research,Academia Sinica,Lanzhou 730000
  • Received:1994-03-01 Revised:1994-09-01 Online:1996-03-15 Published:1996-03-15

摘要: 本文利用一维土壤-植被-大气耦合数值模式,研究了我国西北(37.5°N,105°E)干旱半干旱地区夏季不同植被覆盖度近地面层的水分蒸散过程。模式较好地再现了蒸散过程三阶段的变化趋势特征。模式还揭示了蒸散过程中,下垫面热量平衡分量间的相互转换过程。并由实测资料对模拟结果进行了检验。

关键词: 土壤-植被-大气连续体, 蒸散过程, 陆面过程模式

Abstract: A quantitative description of the evapotranspiration process taking place among the atmosphere,vegetation and soil is needed for studying air-land interaction and interrelation between the geosphere and the biosphere. In this paper, based on the theory of planetary boundary layer and soil-water dynamics, one dimensional soil-vegetation-atmosphere coupled numerical model is proposed. Parameterizations for upper soil layer and vegetation layer are developed.Through transfers and exchanges of heat and water, the thermal and moisture states of atmosphere, vegetation and soil are linked in a coupled system, in which vegetation is considered as a horizontally uniform layer, and the horizontal differences of soil variables in the system are neglected.It allows the surface to become moist quiukly during rainfall or to become drier than the bulk soil while evaporation occurs.An efficient one layer foliage parameterization is therefore developed that extends continuously from the cases of shielding factor σf=0 and shielding factor σf=0.5.It includs influences of both ground and foliage albedos and emissivities, net radiation, retained water on the foliage, and several other considerations.The evapotranspiration process and soil moisture content in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system is simulated and the simulated and observed soil moisture contents are compared. The results show that the evapotranspiration can be divided into three stages with the variety of soil moisture near the surface. Soil property and vegetation shielding factor are the most important influence factors in this process.The preliminary results of the experiment indicate that the land surface process model is capable of predicting the thermal and evapotranspiration processes on the land surface and suitable for climate study.

Key words: Soil-vegetaion-atmosphere continuum, Evapotranspiration Process, Land surface process model

中图分类号: 

  • S161.4