地理学报 ›› 1995, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (2): 160-167.doi: 10.11821/xb199502007

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

东亚地区森林植被带的三维空间分布

方精云   

  1. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京 100085
  • 收稿日期:1993-07-01 修回日期:1994-05-01 出版日期:1995-03-15 发布日期:1995-03-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家教委留学回国人员工作资助费支持项目

THREE-DIMENSION DISTRIBUTION OF FOREST ZONES IN EAST ASIA

Fang Jingyun   

  1. Research Cenler for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085
  • Received:1993-07-01 Revised:1994-05-01 Online:1995-03-15 Published:1995-03-15

摘要: 东亚森林植被带主要由热带亚热带雨林(季雨林)、暖温带常绿阔叶林、冷温带落叶阔叶林和亚寒带针叶林组成。这些植被带的垂直分布高度随纬度(温度梯度)和经度(干湿度梯度)的不同而变化。本文根据大量的地植物学资料,从生态气候学的角度研究了这种变化的规律性并给予了定量的表达。结果表明,在湿润气候区,各森林植被带的分布高度随纬度的增加而下降,下降趋势能用多级正弦函数来表达;随着经度的增加(由内陆向沿海变化),各植被带的分布高度呈直线下降趋势。基于这些结果,建立了东亚地区森林植被带三维空间分布的经验方程。

关键词: 东亚, 森林植被带, 纬度, 经度, 三维空间分布

Abstract: Basic structure of forest vegetation zones in east Asia can be characterized by four zones:tropical-subtropical rain forest(or monsoon forest) zone. warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf forest zone, cool-temperate deciduous forest zone and subarctic coniferous forest zone. Distribution altitudes of these zones change with latitude(thermal gradient) and longitude(humidity/aridity gradient) . In the present paper, the tendency of the change was studied and simulated from a view-point of eco-climatology, using a large number of geobatanical data. As results, the distribution altitude of the forest zones dropped from lower latitudes to higher latitudes in a humid climate region, and from the inland to the coast(from the west to the east) . Empirical equations of the three-dimension distribution for every forest zone were given based on the relationships mentioned-above, and their eco-climatological significance was described. The result of analyzing characteristics of these equations and applying these equations to actual data of vegetation distribution showed that these equations could described well the tendency of three-dimension distribution of the forest zones in east Asia. Accordingly, the equations provided a powerful method for predicting vegetation/climate zone, and had an important theoretical and applying value.

Key words: Distribution altitude, east Asia, forest zone, latitude, longitude, three-dimension distribution

中图分类号: 

  • S718.54