地理学报 ›› 1994, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (s1): 616-624.doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1005

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

遥感科学技术进展

童庆禧   

  1. 中国地理学会环境遥感分会 北京 100101
  • 出版日期:1994-12-15 发布日期:1994-12-15

ADVANCE IN REMOTE SENSING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Tong Qingxi   

  1. The Branch Socicty of Environmemal Remote Sensing, Geographycal Sorwty of China. Beijing, 100101
  • Online:1994-12-15 Published:1994-12-15

摘要: 本文论述了遥感的实质及其与地理学发展的关系。遥感既是一个独立的科学技术领域,又是地理学的支撑技术之一。近10年来,遥感从实验阶段走向了实用的运行阶段。以陆地卫星、气象卫星为代表的遥感系统已广泛在经济和社会的各个方面发挥作用。根据遥感发展的动向,本文对微波遥感、高光谱分辨率遥感以及全球变化遥感研究三个重要前沿问题作了论述,展现了遥感发展的前景。

关键词: 电磁波辐射, 遥感信息, 微波遥感, 全球变化, 成像光谱

Abstract: Virtually, remote sensing is the physical measurement of geo process and geo-features on the earth surface without direct contacting with it. In this paper the relationship between geography and remote sensing is described. Remote sensing is an independent science and technology and also is a support technique for geographical studies on other hand. By using of remote sensing the procedure of geographical studies has been essentially changed.During the last decade remote sensing has developed from its experimental stage to the operational stage. As the representative of remote sensing system, Landsat and SPOT satellites have found its wide application in geography, geology, engineering urban planing, surveying and mapping, meteorological, hydrology, oceanography, environmental monitoring, agriculture, forestry and other disciplines. In addition, the meteorological satellites such as NOAA series satellite also have its great potential by its high frequency of repeated coverage of earth surtace.Three important frontiers of remote sensing are described in this paper. Microwave remote sensing and high spectral resolution remote sensing are the most important new fields.Great attention has been paid in development of such new remote sensing fields in the last decade. Microwave remote sensing has its all weather, all time and proper penetration capabilities while the high spectral resolution remote sensing has fairly high spectral resolution with nano-meter (nm) level. Both of them has provided a great potentials for the study of earth surface phenomena. The information about the structure. the soil moisture, the penetration infromation under dry sand and the information about the flooding provided by microwave remote sensing has greatly enriched the knowledge of earth sciences for buman being.With increasing the spectral bands and spectral resolution the abilities of identification of surface materials and components such as minerals and mineral alterations, vegetation and vegetation under the environmental stress have been greatly enhanced. the spectral diagnostic features of the earth objects extrated from the hyperspectral imagery can be used for identification and classification with high accuracy.The study of earth simultaneously and in real tinle base at global scale has become possible only with remote sensing. The dynamic change of drainage. migration of coast lines and water bodies, landuse change, land degradation, desertification, deforestation and biomass distribution. can be analysed and mapped by using of remote sensing. Remote sensing is also in developing with integration and support of Geographic information System (GIS) . Global Positioning System (GPS), Expert System (ES) and other science and technologies. Remote sensinghas shown its broad prospects in the coming decade.

Key words: Electromagnetic spectrum, Remote sensing inforrnation, Microwave remote sensing, Global change, Imaging spectrometer