地理学报 ›› 1994, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (6): 490-499.doi: 10.11821/xb199406002

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

空间运输联系的分布与交流规律研究

张文尝1, 金凤君1, 唐秀芳2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院国家计划委员会地理研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 铁道部经济规划研究院, 北京
  • 出版日期:1994-11-15 发布日期:1994-11-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金

DISRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE REGULARITIES OF SPATIAL TRANSPORT LINKAGE

Zhang Wengchang1, Jin Fengjun1, Tang Xiufang2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica Beijng 100101;
    2. Economic and Planning Institute, Railway Ministry, Beijing
  • Online:1994-11-15 Published:1994-11-15

摘要: 空间运输联系是指在自然、社会、经济诸要素综合作用下,区域间通过交通运输设施进行旅客和货物交流产生的相互联系与作用。采用定量与定性相结合的实证分析方法,本文研究了客货运输的地域分布特征、地域间交流联系生成的内在机制、基本类型和增长演变的趋势,划分出客运联系“单中心”、“多中心”,货运联系“互补性交流”、“竞争性交流”、“递接性交流等类型,并提出了非均衡系数、集中度、首位联系量等评价指标。

关键词: 运输联系, 分布规律, 交流规律, 非均衡系数, 互补性交流

Abstract: In this paper, the distribution and exchange regularities of transport linkage are studied. The results are mainly obtained by means of studying systematically domestic and foreign data which cover nearly half century. Moreover, Several quantitative indexes are used, such as "distribution ratio","Unbalanced coefficient ","concentration degree ", " Primary linkage volume "As results of the experimental research, the spatial distribution of traffic shows followng features: 1. The spatial distribution of traffic is unbalanced,which is closely related to the distributions of population, GDP or GNP. But the distribtuion of passenger traffic is very different from that of freight traffic. ① The spatial concentration of passenger traffic is higher than that of population and GNP. In six coordinated economic regions, for example, the unbalanced coefficients of population (δP.),GNP(δGNP),and passenger traffic(δT) are 8. 69, 9. 98, 10. 56 respectively. Another example is that in Japan,the δPGNP and δT are 5. 54, 6. 68 and 8. 34 respectively. ② The spatial concentration of freight traffic is lower than that of population and GDP. The unbalanced coefficient of freight traffic(δF) of China is 7. 33,the δF of Japan is 3. 2. Both are lower than their δPGNP and δGNP 2. The historical development of traffic distribution has two stages, In the first stage which is characterized by the beginning of industrialization, the spatial distribution of traffic becomes more and more concentrated. However, in the second stage which is characterized by industrialization and postindustrialization .the spatial distribution of traffic becomes more and more balanced. In China. for example, the concentration index of distribution of passenger traffic(IT) changed from 0. 4017(1965) to 0. 4252(1980). Since then the IT decreased,and the value decreased to 0. 4087 in 1988. 3. The spatial distribution of traffic is closely related to the distribution of industries, regional economic scale and structures. The study results show that the correlative coefficient of the distributions between the passenger traffic and GNP is over 0. 80.The exchange regularities have following features. 1. There are three patterns in the interregional linkages of freight and passenger respectively. The patterns of freight transport linkages are interdependent linkage, competitive linkage, and transferred linkage. The patterns of passenger transport linkages are sloe-center linkage, tree linkage, and network linkage. 2. The interregional transport linkage has four major features. ① The intensities of linkage are sharply decreased with the increase of distance. In the interprovincial freight linkage of China,for instance, 90% of the total exchange volume is exchanged bteween those provinces within a distance less than 2000km. Only 1. 0% is exchanged between those provinces which have a distance over 4000km. ②There are central regions in interregional transport linkage Liaoning, Beijing-Taijin-Heibei, Jiangsu-Shanghai,Guangdong, for example, are four central regions of the transport linkage of China. ③Passenger transport linkage is very different from freight transport linkage. The most important differentiation is that passenger transport linkage is balanced in two opposite directions, but freight transport linkage is unbalanced. ④The linkage of a region are concentrated on several regions. The exchange volume with these regions may occupy over 70% of the total exchange volume.

Key words: Transport linkage, Distribution regularity, Exchange regularity, Unbalanced coefficient, Interdependent exchange