地理学报 ›› 1988, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (4): 329-340.doi: 10.11821/xb198804005

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

流域非点源污染的量化识别方法及其在于桥水库流域的应用

刘枫, 王华东, 刘培桐   

  1. 北京师范大学环境科学研究所
  • 出版日期:1988-10-15 发布日期:1988-10-15

THE QUANTITATIVE IDENTIFICATION OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE YUQIAO RESERVOIR WATERSHED

Liu Feng, Wang Huadong, Liu Peitong   

  1. Institute of Environmental Sciences, Beijing Normal University
  • Online:1988-10-15 Published:1988-10-15

摘要: 本文介绍了量化识别非点源污染发生的时空规律的方法及其应用。通过对该方法最终所获取的各因子图和污染物发生模数图进行分析,可以识别出各因子的空间分布规律及其贡献、非点源污染物发生的时间特征和空间差异以及严重发生区等等。本文还尝试将此方法运用于于桥水库流域,研究结果表明:该流域非点源污染的发生时间几乎拿部在七、八两个月;流域地貌和植被是制约非点源污染空间差异的两个关键因素,调控植被覆盖的空间分布是非点源污染管理的重要途径;流域内长城沿线的狭长地带是总固体(泥沙)发生的严重区域,流域西部中央区是氮发生的重点区。

关键词: 非点源, 量化识别, 地理信息系统, 时空变化, 污染物质发生模数

Abstract: A quantitative methodology is proposed to identify and prioritize potential NFS pollution areas and periods within a watershed in this paper. Its procedure includes collecting original data and maps, selecting interested factors, converting the study area into a grid system, quantifying the factors, and drawing/overlaying on the microcomputers. More specifically, a Geographic Information System is employed to integrate and map such factors as rainfall, topography, plant cover, soil, control practice and chemical content in the soil. Gridmaps of every factor and pollutant generation module are finally obtained. The spatial and temporal variation of NFS pollutant generation can be identified from the gridmaps and the distribution curve of the rainfall factor. Therefore, potential NFS areas and periods are selected for control emphasis. In addition, a NFS management plan can be designed by altering controllable factors.The methodology presented was applied to the Yuqiao reservoir watershed, about 90 kilometers east of Beijing. The conclusions are as follows: (1) nonpoint source pollution almost always occurs in July and August. (2) topography and plant cover are two key factors affecting the spatial variation of NFS pollutant generation. Therefore, adjusting the existing tillage systems and implementing afforestation practices will be significant ways to manage nonpoint sources in the area. (3) the narrow belt along the Great Wall and the central part in the western watershed are potential NFS areas for the contributions of total sediment and nitrogen respectively, and the southern plain is a direct threat to the reservoir as a source of phosphorus. These areas were proposed as a priority for nonpoint source management.

Key words: Nonpoint source (NFS), Quantitative identification, Geographic infor-mation System, Spatial and temporal variation: Pollutant generation module