地理学报 ›› 1988, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (1): 35-43.doi: 10.11821/xb198801004

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

潮沟成因类型及其影响因素的探讨

邵虚生   

  1. 华东师大地理系,上海
  • 出版日期:1988-01-15 发布日期:1988-01-15

GENETIC CLASSIFICATION OF TIDAL CREEK AND FACTORS AFFECTING ITS DEVELOPMENT

Shao Xusheng   

  1. Department of Geography, East China Normal University
  • Online:1988-01-15 Published:1988-01-15

摘要: 潮沟是潮坪上最活跃的微地貌单元。从成因角度分出了滩面水流冲剧型、潮流辐聚侵蚀型、陆源水流侵蚀继承型和泻湖广海间潮流侵蚀型等四种潮沟类型。根据各地潮沟发育程度的明显差异,提出了影响潮沟发育的七个重要因素。

关键词: 潮沟, 潮坪(潮滩), 苏北海岸, 崇明岛海岸, 杭州湾北岸

Abstract: On tidal flats, tidal creeks are the important microlandform which varies greatly. The sediments of tidal flats usually are altered or destroyed by lateral migration and sway of tida! creeks, which affects the stability of tidal flats. Therefore, studying tidal creeks and their sediments is very useful for exploiting tidal flats, carrying out coast engineering projects and analysing ancient tidal creeks and tidal sediments.At home and abroad there are a lot of papers and works dealt with tidal creeks and sediments therein, however, genetic classification of tidal creeks and factors affecting their development haven’t been yet studied comprehensively. This paper discusses these aspects based on data obtained from literature and field observation.According to the principles of genetic classification, the tidal creeks in the world can be classified as follows:1. Tidal creek scoured by the currents on tidal flatThis is the creek which develops on the surface of tidal flat and is similar to the gully developed on mountain slope in development mechanism.2. Tidal creek scoured by the converged tidal currents.This is the creek formed by tidal currents which were locally concentrated or focused.3. Tidal creek inheriting the runoff from landAn inheriting tidal creek it the creek which originally inherited the rill formed by the small-scale runoff from land to tidal flat and then became tidal creek under the erosion of ebb- and flood-tide currents.4. Tidal creek scoured by the tide currents between lagoon and open sea.This is a kind of creeks which is relatively large and connects the lagoon with the open sea.In different parts of the world tidal creeks develop very differently. The main factors affecting the development of tidal creeks are as follows:(1) Tidal range.(2) The width of tidal flat and its relief.(3) Vegetation.(4) Mud content of sediment of tidal flat.(5) The rate of sedimentation.(6) The process of ebb- and flood-tide currents.(7) Human effect.

Key words: Tidal creek, Tidal flat, The Northern coast of Jiangsu Province, The coast ofChongming Island, The Northern Bank of Hangzhou Bay