地理学报 ›› 1987, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (4): 319-327.doi: 10.11821/xb198704004

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

上海城市对太阳辐射的影响

周淑贞, 邵建民   

  1. 华东师范大学
  • 出版日期:1987-10-15 发布日期:1987-10-15

SHANGHAI URBAN LNFLUENCE ON SOLAR RADIATION

Chow Shudjen, Shao Janming   

  1. East China Normal University
  • Online:1987-10-15 Published:1987-10-15

摘要: 上海是我国人口密度、建筑物密度和能源消耗量最大的城市,其对太阳辐射的影响十分显著,主要表现为:(一) 自六十年代末期开始,上海龙华台的太阳直接辐射显著减少,散射辐射逐渐增加,总辐射有所减少,而在同时期内上海郊县站则无此变化。谱分析结果表明,上海城市太阳辐射的这一变化趋势,与市区的耗煤量和降尘量密切相关。(二) 由同一时期城市与郊区所观测到的日照百分率和云量记录及回归方程计算,得知城区的太阳直接辐射和总辐射值比郊区小,散射辐射值比郊区大,城市有混浊岛效应。

关键词: 太阳辐射, 日照百分率, 总云量, 混浊因子

Abstract: Shanghai is the largest industrial and commercial center and the most rapidly growing city in China In order to approach Shanghai urban in fluence on the solar radiation, we deal with the following two aspects:1. Evolution of annual solar radiation during the last 28 years in Shanghai area (1958-1985). From the late 1960s’, the direct solar radiation (S) in Shanghai central observatory obviously decreased while the diffuse solar radition(D) increased gradually. Since the decrement of S is greater than the increment of D, the global radistion (Q + S + D) had the ?oine decreased trend as S. But these trends did not appear in Shanghai rural areas. The results obtained from the spectral analysis show that the decreased or increased trends of S, Q and D in city are closely related to the consumption of coal and the amount of fall dust in the urban district.2. The difference of solar radiation between Shanghai city and its suburban counties. By using the simultaneous observational data of percentage of possible sunshine and amount of clouds in Shanghai city and its subrubs, we calculated the values of S. D, and Q for its nearby ten rural stations (applying suitable statistical formula). The results show that the urban district has the lowest values of S. and Q. In view of the turbidity factor (D/S), the urban district gives the highest value. The effect of turbidity- island’ is obvious.

Key words: Solar radiation, percentage of possible sunshine, total cloud cover, turbidity factor