地理学报 ›› 1985, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (1): 29-36.doi: 10.11821/xb198501004

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国稻作农业的起源和传播

吴维棠   

  1. 浙江自然博物馆
  • 出版日期:1985-01-15 发布日期:1985-01-15

ORIGIN AND SPREAD OF PADDY RICE CULTIVATION IN CHINA

Wu Weitang   

  1. Zhejiang Museum of Natural History
  • Online:1985-01-15 Published:1985-01-15

摘要: 根据考古材料,我国种植水稻已有七千多年历史。现在我国人民中有三分之二左右的人口以稻米为主要粮食。全国各省、市、自治区中,除青海、甘肃和内蒙古三个省区外,都有水稻生产。种植水稻的北界已扩展到黑龙江省的漠河,达北纬53度附近。

关键词: 稻作农业起源, 遗址, 野稻, 稻谷, 稻作起源, 粳稻, 云南, 杭州湾两岸, 越族, 野生稻

Abstract: Concerning the problem of the origin of paddy rice cultivation there are two aspe- cts: 1. where and when the paddy rice cultivation originated; 2. how the cultivated spe- cies evolved.Up to now .there are 40 neolithic cultural sites in which a great amount of remains of paddy rice have been discovered. Two of there, Lujiao and Homodu sites, along the Hanigzhou Wan (Hangzhou Bay) dated as early as 7000 B.P.. The delta plain from the Hangzhou Wan to Taihu Lake appears to be the earliest centre for the cultivation of paddy rice in China.The spread of paddy rice cultivation is a process of cultural exchange between dif-ferent regions. It spread from the Hangzhou Wan area to the neighbouring regions fo-uowing the river courses lakes and sea coast. Among these the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) was the mest important artery. Paddy rice cultivation spread westward to the Chang Jiang Gorges area about 5000 B.P., southward to the Zhu Jiang (Zhujiang Ri-ver) basin about 4500 B.P., south-westward to the highlands of yunnan and northward to the Huang He basin about 3000 B.P.. It spred also eastward to Taiwan about 3000 B.P..Differention and variation of the speci?s of paddy rice are the results of cultivation and spreading. Oriza sativa L., subsp. Keng Ting and O. s. L. sabsp. Hesin Ting were differentiated from the wild plants when they were domesticated. The plain surround- ing the Hangzhou Wan was the centre of differentiation.