地理学报 ›› 1983, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (2): 197-203.doi: 10.11821/xb198302010

• 论文 • 上一篇    

赫特纳著《地理学,它的历史、性质和方法》述评

陈仲雍   

  1. 商务印书馆
  • 出版日期:1983-04-15 发布日期:1983-04-15

COMMENT ON "DIE GEOGRAPHIE, IHRE GESCHICHTE, IHR WESEN UND IHRE METHODEN" BY A. HETTNER

Chen Zhong-yong   

  1. The Commercial Press
  • Online:1983-04-15 Published:1983-04-15

摘要: 德国地理学家阿尔夫雷德·赫特纳(Hettner,Alfred 1859—1941),是近代地理学区域学派创始人,更以关注并系统阐述地理学方法论而著称。1895年他创办了《地理杂志》,不断撰文阐述地理学理论问题。

关键词: 地理学, 地理学史, 地理思想, 述评, 普通地理学, 地志学, 地理学理论, 近代地理学, 地理学方法论, 地理课程

Abstract: The, book "Die Geographic, ihre Geschichte, ihr Wesen und ihre Methoden" (Bre-slau, 1927) by A. Hettner, the German geographer, has been translated into Chinese re-cently. This book will be published by the Commercial Press and is now in the process of typesetting and printing. Being an "encyclopaedia" dealing with the elementary theoryof geography of the author's age, the book contains the history, nature, assigment, method as well as means of expression of geography.Breaking through the former frame of discovery history, Hettner's "History of Ge-agraphy" summarized the achievement of 800 people in the field of nature and society, and analyzied their historical causes and positions. The problem on nature and assigment of geography has been argued endlessly by geograhers throughout the world. This is a fact to show that Hettner's geographical thought exists certain depth and strength in the sphere of learning. The theoretical analysis of the method and means of expression of ge-ography is also an important contribution by the author of this methodological book. He-ttner has also given an effective and systematic statement on the education of geography. The central idea running through all of these sections is the feature of regional significane belong to geography. This is the foundation for geography as an independent science and at no time hereafter a vassal of history or other science.Broken paths A. von Humboldt had explored before, A. Hettner had faced some dif-ferent probfem in geography: The former demonstrated how geography developed from record and description into a science; while the later mainly the problem of what is geog-raphy arising from the new development of geography. Under such a condition, Hettner made an attempt to solve these questions and thus emerged his theory of geography as the times required.We can see from this book not only the thought and achievements of the science of geography since the time of A. von Humboldt and also the dialectical thinking and method flashed constantly before Hettner's eyes. This is because the influences of natural philoso-phy and empiricism occasionally raised doubts in Hettner's mind. By the way, we must know, the dialectical thought of Hettner have taken root in the classical philosophy of Ge-rman culture. Hettner strived to combine appropriately the scientific contents with diale-ctical thought and made valuable and pioneering attempt to study the elementary theory of geography on the scientific view point. The turbulent situation of the German society of Hettner's age leaded our author, Hettner, to a very complicated social thought, which revealed tortuously it self by this science book.