地理学报 ›› 1983, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (2): 141-153.doi: 10.11821/xb198302004

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

祁连山区现代冰川发育条件、分布特征及区划——据最新冰川编目资料分析

王宗太, 刘潮海   

  1. 中国科学院兰州冰川冻土研究所
  • 出版日期:1983-04-15 发布日期:1983-04-15

DEVELOPMENT CONDITIONS DISTRIBUTION FEATURES AND REGIONAL DIVISIONS OF PRESENT GLACIERSIN QILIAN SHAN

Wang Zong-tai, Liu Chao-hai   

  1. Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Cryopedology, Academia Sinica
  • Online:1983-04-15 Published:1983-04-15

摘要: 祁连山区(包括阿尔金山东端),位于青藏高原的东北沿,跨越青海、甘肃两省之间,为河西和柴达木两内陆水系的发源地,是我国冰川研究最早的地区。

关键词: 祁连山区, 平顶冰川, 编目资料, 冰川中值, 新冰, 现代冰川, 冷龙岭, 发育条件, 冰川分布, 区划

Abstract: According to the data of the Glacier Inventor}’ compiled in 1979-1980, in Qilian Shan there are 2859 glaciers in total with an area of 1972.5km2 and an estimated ice sto-rage of 95.44km3.Qilian Shan consists of a series of high mountains and inter-mountain basins all run-ning parallelly in NWW direction, with grid-radiating network of waterways.The annual precipitation at Lenglongling and Zhoulang Nanshan of Qilian Shan rea-ches 400-700mm, and gradually decreases westward or southward to about 150mm. At 4000m a.s.l., the annual average temperature in the northwestern part of the mountain is lower than that in the southwestern part, with the centre: of low temperature (- 8.5℃) situated in Danhe Nanshan. Qilian Shan is a broad alpine zofte. The area above 4000m occu-pies about 30% of the total area, with Shule Nanshan as a dividing line, the mountain mass north of it are thinner and the valleys are narrower and deeper than those south of it. Again, with Youmen-Tuanjie peak-Delingha as a dividing line, the mountains in the eastern part are strongly cut by erosiom, but dry denudation mountains are preponderant in the western part preserving broad planation surface on some of the mountain tops. Such topographic conditions have great influence on the distribution of glaciers in Qilian Shan.1. There are more glaciers developed on the northern slope than on the southern slo-pe, with an area of 75.6% of the total area. The glaciers on the southern slope occupy only 24.4% of the total area.2. The size of the glaciers in inner mountains is larger than those in marginal mo-untain regions. For example, the glacial area in Shauli Nanshan occupies 28.3% of the total area, with an average area of one glacier at 1.13 km2, while that at Harke Shan only occupies 1% with an average area of one glacier at only 0.32km2.3. The elevation of distribution rises from northeast to southwest. The mean eleva-tion of glaciers at Lenglongling in the northeastern end is 4320m. while that at Qaidam Shan in the southwestern end is 5540m.4. The glacial type varies from east to west. Hanging glaciers are dominant in the eastern part, with 50% or more in number in all the basins. In the western part, valley glaciers are preponderant, with an area over40.5 in relative basins.5. The accumulation area ratio (AAR) decrease from the inner mountains to mar-ginal ones. Around Haltang basin, the AAR is 0.75 or more while at the marginal ones, they are less than that.6. The proportion of melt-water as a replenishment to river flow is far larger in thecentral mountains of Qilian Shan than In the marginal ones, as at Haltang basin the reple-nish volume of melt water is 40% or more, while at marginal mountains they are less than 30%.According to the features of glacial distribution as mentioned above, it can be divided into five large regions, the Shiyang-Hei river; the Shule-Dang River; the Haltang-Tatalin, River; the Har Lake and the Tatong River.