地理学报 ›› 1982, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (3): 252-260.doi: 10.11821/xb198203004

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

从区域与城市发展的角度评上海港港址选择问题

郑弘毅1, 张务栋2   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理系;
    2. 华东师范大学地理系
  • 出版日期:1982-07-15 发布日期:1982-07-15

A REVIEW ON THE PROBLEM OF SITING OF SHANGHAIHARBOR FROM THE REGIONAL AND URBANPOINT OF VIEW

Zheng Hong-yi1, Zhang Wu-dong 2   

  1. 1. Department of Geography, Nanjing University;
    2. Department of Geography, East China Normal Unicrersity
  • Online:1982-07-15 Published:1982-07-15

摘要: 上海港从1852年以来,一直是我国最大的港口。到八十年代已列入世界十大港口之一。1980年,上海港吞吐量达8,483万吨,占全国交通部直属海港吞吐量的40%,占上海市对外总运量的60%。

关键词: 上海港口, 港址选择, 黄浦江, 金山, 集疏运, 建港, 城市发展, 长江口南岸, 岸线, 物资

Abstract: Shanghai Harbor, the biggest port of China, ranks among the ten major ports of the world. In 1980, the volume of cargo handled at Shanghai Harbor amounted to 84.83 million tons.In view of the trend of growth of cargo-handling and the existing suggestions on the long term industrial development of Shanghai, it is likely that the volume of cargo to be handled at Shanghai Harbor in the year of 2000 will reach 300 million tons. However, the existing conditions of facilities of Shanghai Harbor can hardly meet the demand of its development and delay in loading and unloading vessels has become more and more serious. The questions of how to avoid congestion at ShanghaiHarbor and to meet the requirements for its long term development are considered as the main topics for the construction of Shanghai Harbor and its locational planning. The present paper attempts to probe into the siting of Shanghai Harbor from the point of economic geography.1. Shanghai has been rising from a small fishing village to the status of the biggest city of China and into the rank of the world’s five major metropolises. This is closely related to the fact that Shanghai Harbor is endowed with good natural condi-tions. Besides, the expansion of the area of Shanghai as a city and the evolution of its urban location are also important factors in this context.2. The throughtput capacity of Shanghai Harbor may be raised through the improvement of efficiency, renovation and reconstruction as well as extension of wharves and utilization of shorelines.But since transhipment accounts for a high percentage in cargo handling and still shows a trend of growth, it is necessary to open a branch of Shanghai Harbor in its vicinity. Nan-tong Harbor has very good conditions and can be made into a main harbor for branching transhipment from Chang Jiang River, while Zhang-jia Harbor may be made secondary harbor for the same purpose. Zhenghai Harbor may handle part of transhipment from Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Anhui provinces. Besides, Fuzhou Harbor, Xiamen Harbor and Liangyun Harbor can handle some transoipment as well.3. So far there have been more than ten alternative project of three different types for siting of Shanghai Harbor (Chang Jiang Estuary, North bank of Hanzhou Bay and the inland harbor type). The concerned authorities have made compara-tive feasibility resources researches according to conditions of physical geography, engineering and investment. In this article, the authors made a survey of the siting of Shanghai Harbor from the point of concentration and dissipation of cargos between the harbor and its hinterland and the relationship between harbor and city and reached the following conclusion: the site of Jingshan Mouth is believed to be the most ideal due to its proximity to railroads, easy in linking with them and setting stations and stack grounds with little interference to the neighbouring towns, convience in connec-tion with the Taihu lake water system and the local deep water favouring the accomoda-tion of large vessels.4. In the area of Jingshan Mouth-Xinghuo State Farm there is a lot of open lands available for harbor construction with relatively low costs. It is located in the windward side, and at a distance from the city of Shanghai. Even developing industries in this area will not pollute the environment of Shanghai. It possesses a favourable con-dition for constructing a satellite city of Shanghai with 400.000-500,000 population, therefore, the site of Jingshan Mouth is most suitable for carrying out dispersion, plans for the city of Shanghai.