地理学报 ›› 1981, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (4): 377-391.doi: 10.11821/xb198104004

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国平均水汽含量分布的基本特点及其控制因子

邹进上, 刘惠兰   

  1. 南京大学气象系
  • 出版日期:1981-10-15 发布日期:1981-10-15

THE BASIC FEATURES OF DISTRIBUTION OF WATER VAPOURCONTENT AND THEIR CONTROLLING FACTORS IN CHINA

Zhou Jinshang, Liu Huilan   

  1. Department of Meteorology, Nanjing University
  • Online:1981-10-15 Published:1981-10-15

摘要: 本文利用我国103个探空站和印度两个探空站的气象资料,计算了1—12月平均水汽含量并绘制了各月分布图和经向、纬向时间剖面;论述了水汽含量的分布特点和季节变化。

关键词: 水汽含量, 水汽总含量, 月份, 控制因子, 毫巴, 基本特点, 拔海高度, 等值线, 南北梯度, 青藏高原

Abstract: In this paper, We have calculated average monthly values of water vapour contentof air column above unit area of one square centimetre at the earth’s surface and thelevels of 850, 700, 500 and 600 mbs respectively. The calculation are mainly based onthe meteorological data of 103 aerological stations during the period of 1960-1969 inChina. The charts of average amounts of water vapour content for each of the months,i.e. January, April, July and October, and the time cross sections along latitude of33°N, and longitudes of 90°E and 110°E are presented.The basic features of distribution and variation of water vapour content over China are briefly described as follows:1. In general, the mean values of water vapour content are decreased northwest-ward from South China. The maximum is located near the northern Gulf, where theamount of water vapour is about 62 mm. The centers of large values of moisture arefound in the Sichuan Basin and the two large lakes area. The minimum over the TibetanPlateau is due to the high elevation of the terrain in that area.2. The amount of water vapour content decreased rapidly as the altitude in-creased. On the average, the amount of moisture of air above unit area of one squarecentimetre in the layer from the surface up to 500 mb is in excess of 90% of that at theearth’s surface.3. The patterns of the months from October through April show a slight change inform and in magnitude of water vapour content. But by May, a noticeable increase ofmoisture over the central and eastern China begins to appear and continues throughJuly. Therefore, July is the month with the maximum value of water vapour forChina, and January (or February) is the month with the minimum amount. Excep-tions are those stations in the southern coast of China with maxima in June.As for the position of maximum longitudinal gradient of water vapour content, itmoves with the transition of natural weather season. In winter, the maximum gradientlocates in 20°-25°N, in Spring, 30°-35°N, and in Summer, 35°-40°N. In Autumn, it returnes to 30°-35°N.4. Another feature is very important that there is an extensive tongue of moistureextended northeastward by east from the southern coast of China. After the appearanceof the tongue of moisture in April, it is developed very strongly in June. Obviously, itis associated closely with the lower jet stream.5. A center of moisture over Tibetan Plateau on charts of water vapour contentin the layer from 600 mb up to 200 mb was found, its tongue extends eastward fromterrain. This center of moisture begins to appear in June and continues through Sep-tember. August is the month of maximum amount over there.Finally, the paper discussed in details the factors, which include geographi-cal latitude, proximity of sea and land, topography, monsoon and weather regimes havesignificant influences on the distribution and variation of water vapour content in ourinvestigating areas.