地理学报 ›› 1981, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (1): 47-58.doi: 10.11821/xb198101005

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

上海的雾

周淑贞, 张秀宝, 郭淑麟   

  1. 华东师大地理系
  • 出版日期:1981-01-15 发布日期:1981-01-15

ON THE FOG OF SHANGHAI

Zhou Shuzhen, Zhang Xiubao, Guo Shulin   

  1. East China Teachers’University
  • Online:1981-01-15 Published:1981-01-15

摘要: 一、前言 上海地区总面积约6,192平方公里,其中有140余平方公里已建成为人口密集、房屋鳞次栉比的市区。这里水汽充足,工厂林立,汽车和居民燃烧昕产生的烟尘和废气提供了大量的凝结核,为雾的形成创造了有利的条件。特别是市区的雾远较郊区为多,市区能见度恶劣,不仅对交通运输有很大的影响;而且能削弱入射阳光,阻碍有害气体和烟尘的飏散,对人体健康亦有危害。本文目的在研究上海雾的气候特征。这对于做好上海雾的预报和阐明上海城市气候的特征,都有十分重要的意义。

关键词: 雾日, 平流辐射雾, 锋面雾, 平流雾, 上海市区, 年平均风速, 上海城市, 月平均, 月份, 污染系数

Abstract: The fog of Shanghai can be classified into following four types: radiation fog(accounting for 44.8%), frontal fog (accounting for 24.8%), advection fog (accountingfor 17.6%), advection-radiation fog (accounting for 12.8%). As shown by the recordsduring recent 77 years, there are 43.5 foggy days per year on average. But its annualvariation is very remarabL. e.g., there are 107 foggy days in 1950, while only 17 foggydays in 1917; the former is more than six-fold as much as the latter. There are twofoggy seasons yearly: one occurs from October to December, and the other from Marchto May. Fogs rarely appear in summer (July and August). In this paper the re-gularity and causes of the seasonal and diurnal variation of fog in Shanghai are dis-cussed.The regional differences between urban districts of Shanghai and its suburbs areobvious. There are far more foggy days each year in its urban districts and the foggyseason there is also much longer. The distribution of foggy days is closely related to thefrequency of wind direction, wind velocity and coefficient of air pollution. Meteorologi-cal observations for a long period have proved that the fog in Shanghai urban districtsmay be formed in lower relative humidity (such as 67%), but in the suburbs of Shang-hai, only in very high relative humidity (98%-100%). Finally, it is pointed out thatthe fog of Shanghai is closely related to its geographical environment and the featuresof general circulation of atmosphere.