地理学报 ›› 1980, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (2): 137-148.doi: 10.11821/xb198002005

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原(及其邻近山地)冰川侵蚀地貌发育的基本特征与影响因素

崔之久   

  1. 北京大学地理系
  • 出版日期:1980-04-15 发布日期:1980-04-15

ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLACIALLANDFORMS ON QINGHAI-XIZANG PLATEAU

Cui Zhijiu   

  1. Department of Geography, Beijing University
  • Online:1980-04-15 Published:1980-04-15

摘要: 青藏高原及其邻近山地占我国面积的四分之一以上,在4000—5000米以上的高山地带发育了各种类型的现代冰川,其基本特征已有不少作者作了专门论述。早在六十年代初,已有人指出,由于大陆性冰川与海洋性冰川在水热条件和物理性质上有明显的差异,其地质地貌作用也是颇不相同的。

关键词: 槽谷, 冰斗, 粒雪盆, 冰川侵蚀, 地貌发育, 天山山地, 青藏高原, 藏东南, 刃脊, 冰川作用区

Abstract: For the discussion on the essential features of the development of glacial landforms on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, it is necessary to go further into the classifica-tion of glacial landforms: cross section of the glacial trough may be subdivided intonarrow-deep, medium and wide-shallow types; longitudinal profile may be subdividedinto multi-steps, mono-step and smooth sypes; in cirque and neve basin mny be dis-tinghshed single layer and double layers strusture; various types of peak appear inglscial region, e.g. The premeval Muztagata type (Over turned basin type), ZhuoAoyou type (Cap type), Bogda type (Pen rack or saw tooth troe), Qomolangma type(Pyramidical type) and lastly the Qogir type (Horn type). This shows that not allpeaks in the glacial region are hornshape which represent only the fature of thelast stage.According to the analysis of the development and distribution of the various typesof glacial landform, we found that the factors influencing the development of glaciallandforms are pre-glacial landform time rock structure and climatic condition. Basedupon the assemblage of glacial landforms and their distribution, two glacial geo-morphic regions may be distinguished in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. 1) The lowmountain and wide valley glacinl landform region. This includes the north slop ofthe Himalayas, the Gangdises shan the westen and middle section of the NyainqenTanglha shan, the Tanggula, the south slope of the Kunlun shan, the Bayan Harmountain and the Anyemaqen shan. They belong to the mountain of the interior of theplateau and its neighbouring mountain. The characteristies of the glacial landformsare: over-turned basin and cap type of peak of early stage, mostly wide shallow,single step or smooth type of trough valley, with low valley wall and few hangingvalley; few cirques or neve basin which are wide shllow with low density and fewlayers. These are reflections of unimportance of the differential movement of themountain. The pre-glacial landforms are gentle, with shorter glacial history, weakdissection in interglacial period, and a relatively dry elimate. 2) The other regionis the glacial geomorphic region of high mountain and deep gorges including chieflythe outer face of the border lands of the plateau (the inner face belongs to thefirst region), e.g. the south slope of the Himalayas, the mountanous area of southeast Xizang, the Hengduar Shan (including Yulong Shan of Yunnan) and the KunlunShan. Characteristics of glacial landforms are in sharp contrast to the first region.There are reflections of the more importance of the differential movement of moun-tain. Pre-glacial landforms are deep and narrow, with longer glacial history, strongdissection in interglacial period and a climate more favourable to development ofglacial and landforms (in the southern region). From the above deseriptions it showsthat the great variety of the devalopment and the distribution of glacial landformsfollows certain general rules.