地理学报 ›› 1979, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (2): 129-138.doi: 10.11821/xb197902004

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

黑龙江省的气候变化

龚高法, 陈恩久, 文焕然   

  1. 中国科学院地理研究所
  • 出版日期:1979-04-15 发布日期:1979-04-15

THE CLIMATIC FLUCTUATIONS IN THE HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE, CHINA

Gong Gaofa, Chen Enjiu, Wen Huanran   

  1. Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica
  • Online:1979-04-15 Published:1979-04-15

摘要: 黑龙江省是我国重要的商品粮基地,地处我国最北面,气候寒冷,无霜期平均只有80天(岭北)至140天(东南部),目前只能种一年一熟的中、早熟品种,在寒冷的年份,作物未熟先衰,或遭早霜危害。近年来连续出现的夏季低温和早霜冻,对农业造成不小影响。

关键词: 17世纪, 气候变化, 生长季, 气候状况, 寒暖, 黑龙江省, 安县, 初霜, 纪略, 齐齐哈尔

Abstract: Based on the historical documents, the tree rings, the fluctuating water levels of lakes as well as modern instrumental data, the climatic fluctuations in the Heilongjiang province during recent 400 years are analyzed. The climate since 1909 (the first year with modern instrumental observations) has been warmer than that of 17th-19th centuries. During recent 400 years, the 17th century was the coldest, while the temperature of the 18th century was quite similar with that of the 20th century, although a little bit lower. The 50's-60's of the 17th century was the "climax" of the so-called "Little Ice Age", with the growing season more than one month shorter than today, and the ice-thickness of the Heilongjiang (Amur River) more than one metre thicker.In the present century, there has been two cycles of thermal changes. Before 1945, the annual temperature has been increasing, while after that year, decreasing. Comparing the 1960-1975 period with that of 1945-1959, the cumulative tempera-tures ^ 10℃was 100℃ lesser, and the growing season 5 days shorter.If we take the ratio of the total times of flood to the total times of both flood and drought in the historical documents as the moisture index, it is 0.74 before 1880, and 0.55 after that year, it shows that the latter period has been drier.According to the fluctuating water levels of lakes and modern precipitation data, western part of the Heilongjiang province, has undergone three cycles of wet-and-dry alternation since the 19th century. After 1960, the climate has tended to be drier.