地理学报 ›› 1979, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (1): 33-42.doi: 10.11821/xb197901004

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

高原季风的平均气候特征

汤懋苍, 沈志宝, 陈有虞   

  1. 中国科学院兰州高原大气物理研究所
  • 出版日期:1979-01-15 发布日期:1979-01-15

ON CLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE XIZANG PLATEAU MONSOON

Tang Maocang, Shen Zhibao, Chen Yonyu   

  1. Institute of Plateau Atmospheric Physics of Lanzhou, Academia Sinica
  • Online:1979-01-15 Published:1979-01-15

摘要: 西藏高原及其周围地区是否存在季风?若存在,是东南季风还是西南季风? 或是高原本身自成一季风体系?这些问题一直为我国气候学者所注视。

关键词: 高原季风, 夏季风, 气候特征, 年变化, 山谷风, 高压带, 热低压, 季风区, 盛行风向, 印度季风

Abstract: Studies on the mean pressure, wind and precipitation data over the Xizang Plateau and its neighbourhood reveal their climatic characteristics as follows:1.The Plateau has its own permanent pressure systems in the lower and middle troposphere, i.e., the cold high in winter (Nov.- March) and the heat low in summer (June-Sept.).2.In summer, the Xizang heat low is separated from the Indian monsoon depression by a so-called Southern Plateau high belt, its axis is almost paralleled to the Ximalaya range.On the northern slope of the Plateau, there is a high belt too, its axis with a slope about 1/200 dips toward the plateau proper.3.In winter, the Xizang cold high is separated from the Indian high by a Southern Plateau low belt, its position has shifting northward from the summer southern Plateau high belt and with a slope about 1/100 dipping toward the Plateau proper.4.The vertical distribution of the prevailing winds over the Xizang Plateau is distributed into three layers: the lower is the mountain-valley wind layer, with a thickness about 1 km; the middle is the plateau monsoon layer, with a thickness about 2? km over the margins of the Plateau and about 1 km over the Plateau proper; the upper is the plenetary circulation, under the control of the global atmospheric circulation.5.The plateau monsoon, is not a part of the Indian monsoon, there exist a distinguishable anticyclone belt in summer and a cyclone belt in winter between these two monsoon systems.The plateau monsoon is caused by the seasonal variation of the thermal effect on the Xizang Plateau.