地理学报 ›› 1978, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (2): 85-101.doi: 10.11821/xb197802001

• 论文 •    下一篇

试论中国陆栖脊椎动物地理特征——以哺乳动物为主

张荣祖   

  1. 中国科学院地理研究所
  • 出版日期:1978-07-15 发布日期:1978-07-15

ON THE ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHINA

Zhang Yong-zu   

  1. Institute of Geography, Academia, Sinica
  • Online:1978-07-15 Published:1978-07-15

摘要: 二十多年来,我国动物区系的调查研究工作蓬勃发展,为动物地理学研究奠定了基础。在陆栖脊椎动物方面继全国性动物地理区划的研究(郑作新,张荣祖1959),地区性的动物区系和动物地理研究均有较大的进展。

关键词: 陆栖脊椎动物, 动物区系, 生态地理动物群, 哺乳动物, 地理特征, 横断山脉, 热带, 区域分化, 青藏高原, 欧亚北部

Abstract: The zoogeographical characteristics of China as reflected by the faunistie composi-tion of terrestrial vertebrates has resulted from the successive differentiations from the Hipperion group since late Tertiary (Pig. 1). In the Palaeoarctic realm, the adjust-ment to the diversification of environment between the west and the east of the country has brought about further regionanization. On the other hand, the discontinuous distribu-tion of some species over China in the east arid Europe in the west (Fig. 3) may bear evidence of how the Pleistocene glaciation influencing the animal distribution in N. Eurasia. Of the Oriental realm, the transitional character shown by the tropical animals (Fig. 4) has been consequent to the southward recession (Fig. 2), which, as far as some genus and species are concerned, has been in progress ever since Pleistocene. The Tibetan and the Mongolia-Sinkiang Begions approximate in components, particu-larly so in the steppe areas. Their close relationship, as well as the recency of the uplifting of Tibetan plateau, might explain the slight differentiation (on the level of species or lower) from each other. Between Taiwan and Hainan, a similarily lies in the slight differentiations due to the recency of being separated from the mainland, but a dissimilarity stands out when the temperate and the subtropical elements in Taiwan are compared with the completely tropical elements in Hainan. This distinc-tion may have been descended from their respective affinities to the neighboring parts of the mainland. The uniqueness of the Southwestern Region with parallel ridges and gorges being unaffected by the last glaciation is expressed by its function, of preserving some animals or forming centers of distribution.From an ecological viewpoint, 3 main groups of vertebrates have been observed in China (Fig. 7), i. e., the monsoonal group of hygrocoles, the Sinkiang-Mongolian group of Xerocoles, and the Tibetan group of cryocoles. The components of each group vary as the habitates, and they intermingle in the boundary areas. The intersper-sion is particularly obvious (1) in the Southwes tern Eegion of ridges and gorges (Fig. 8), where the vertical zonation far exceeds the horizontal, zonation; and (2) the region between the Tibetan and the Sinkiang-Mo ngolian groups (Fig. 7), where the palaeogeographic process has drawn close with each other.A scheme of subdividing these 3 groups into 7 in accordance with the vegetation formations has been suggested (Fig 9). Groups 4 (desert and semidesert) and 7 (humid tropical) represent the two extremes (contimental dry on one hand and mari-time humid on the other) with their respective endemic animals, while other groups are transitional both in faunistie composition (Table 2) and ecological characteristics (Table 3).