地理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (10): 2668-2682.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202210016

• 研究进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

1912—1949年中国地理学者的发展特征分析

孙俊1,2(), 汤茂林3,4, 潘玉君1, 武友德1, 张晓梅1, 梁栩琪1, 郭玉珊1, 宋慧仙1, 和晓江1, 牛天有1, 刘浩1   

  1. 1.云南师范大学地理学部,昆明 650500
    2.云南师范大学历史与行政学院,昆明 650500
    3.南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210023
    4.江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-27 修回日期:2021-12-31 出版日期:2022-10-25 发布日期:2022-12-25
  • 作者简介:孙俊(1985-), 男, 云南泸西人, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110014014M), 主要从事地理学史、西南历史民族地理研究。E-mail: tswwiththinkwithgp126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(16ZDA041);国家社会科学基金项目(17FZS047);国家社会科学基金项目(20FZSB006);国家自然科学基金项目(41761037);国家自然科学基金项目(41971169)

Analysis on the development characteristics of geographers in China from 1912 to 1949

SUN Jun1,2(), TANG Maolin3,4, PAN Yujun1, WU Youde1, ZHANG Xiaomei1, LIANG Xuqi1, GUO Yushan1, SONG Huixian1, HE Xiaojiang1, NIU Tianyou1, LIU Hao1   

  1. 1. Faculty of Geography, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China
    2. School of History and Administration, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China
    3. School of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    4. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2021-02-27 Revised:2021-12-31 Published:2022-10-25 Online:2022-12-25
  • Supported by:
    National Social Science Foundation of China(16ZDA041);National Social Science Foundation of China(17FZS047);National Social Science Foundation of China(20FZSB006);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41761037);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971169)

摘要:

本文基于多种资料,梳理了1912—1949年中国地理学者姓名、生卒年、籍贯、领域、教育与工作经历等数据,从来源、增长、结构3个层面讨论当时中国地理学者发展进程。研究发现1912—1949年间:① 地理学者在来源层面可分舆地学者、外聘地理学者、现代学制培养地理学者(含有交集关系的国内培养学者、留学培养学者、跨学科学者)3种类型,不同类型群体对地理学者发展的影响差异明显;② 地理学者数量发展可分1912—1927年波动增长,1928—1939年持续增长,1940—1941年急速增长和1942—1949年放缓增长4个时期;③ 中国地理学者学科结构、领域结构、学缘结构、地域结构、年龄结构、性别结构等方面均表现为失衡但失衡程度趋于降低的态势;④ 地理学者发展与地理教学、研究机构发展关系密切,特别是高等地理教学机构对地理学者发展有多重影响。1912—1949年中国地理学者的发展为中国科学地理学的持续进步奠定了人才基础,其过程同时是中国近现代地理学转型的一个侧面。

关键词: 地理学者, 来源类型, 增长过程, 结构特征, 1912—1949, 中国

Abstract:

Based on materials mainly comprising name lists, biographies, short introductions, dictionaries of/on geographers, historical records overviewing colleges and universities, histories of geography departments, and so on, this study aims at revealing the development process of geographers in China in the period 1912-1949 from a ternary perspective of source, growth, and structure. The key data on geographers' birth and death years, native places, subdisciplines or fields they contributed to, and their educational and working backgrounds are extracted and used to identify geographers and evaluate their development process. A total of 460 geographers (449 Chinese, 11 foreigners) are identified. The research reveals the following: First, geographers can be categorized into three types: traditional, foreign, and scientific cultivation (including domestic trained, overseas trained, and interdisciplinary scholars), and the changes in geographer type reflected the change of disciplinary traditions. Second, the development of geographers can be divided into four periods: initial growth (1912-1927), continuous growth (1928-1939), rapid growth (1940-1941), and slow growth (1942-1949). Third, the distribution of Chinese geographers' subdisciplines or fields, research directions, native places, ages, and gender showed a pattern of obvious unbalance but continuous optimization. Finally, the development of geographers was closely related to the establishment of teaching and scientific research institutions. The higher teaching institutions had a "double-track" effect (employing and training) on the development of geographers in terms of recruitment and training. In particular, the contribution of university geography departments to the cultivation of geographers was characterized as the "double-track" system related to the types of universities and departments. Geoscience departments in comprehensive universities and those jointly established with geology and meteorology departments made outstanding contributions to the development of geography, while geoscience departments in universities tended to train physical geographers. Overall, the number of geographers in China, particularly Chinese geographers, and the rate at which that number increased were considerable, albeit unevenly distributed over time. Notably, the development of Chinese geographers from 1912 to 1949 laid a solid talent foundation for the further development of Chinese geography after 1949. The progress of the development of Chinese geographers from 1912 to 1949 was also remarkable, and was the result of the efforts of senior, outstanding, famous, young, and female geographers, and the participation of foreign companions.

Key words: geographer, source types, growth process, structural characteristics, 1912-1949, China