地理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (8): 2097-2112.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202208017

• 地缘政治与世界地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

可持续饮食系统的尺度逻辑——基于中国、巴西、南非的案例

钟淑如1(), 王龙杰2, 徐雨晨1, 曾国军1()   

  1. 1.中山大学旅游学院,广州 510275
    2.浙江大学管理学院,杭州 310058
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-25 修回日期:2022-03-31 出版日期:2022-08-25 发布日期:2022-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 曾国军(1977-), 男, 湖南华容人, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 研究方向为饮食地理与酒店管理。E-mail: zenggj@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:钟淑如(1989-), 女, 广东东莞人, 博士, 特聘副研究员, 研究方向为饮食地理。E-mail: zhongshr3@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41901164);国家自然科学基金项目(42071174);国家自然科学基金项目(41971190);国家自然科学基金项目(72081330514);英国经济社会研究委员会国家合作项目(ES/R005303/1)

Scalar logics of sustainble food systems: Case studies in China, Brazil, and South Africa

ZHONG Shuru1(), WANG Longjie2, XU Yuchen1, ZENG Guojun1()   

  1. 1. School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. School of Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
  • Received:2021-04-25 Revised:2022-03-31 Published:2022-08-25 Online:2022-10-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41901164);National Natural Science Foundation of China(42071174);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971190);National Natural Science Foundation of China(72081330514);The Economic and Social Research Council(ES/R005303/1)

摘要:

农业工业化和“去地化”的生产模式、不透明的流通过程以及膨胀的消费欲望致使饮食系统危机不断,其可持续性成为全球尺度的挑战。当前饮食系统的可持续性研究面临尺度问题,涉及从全球地方的目标转化,以及从地方到全球的经验反馈两个方面。首先,全球尺度的可持续目标宏大包容,但是对地方尺度的差异性缺乏关照。其次,部分西方国家的可持续实践垄断了经验表达,过于重视社区等微观尺度而忽略了其他尺度的潜在作用,引发“尺度陷阱”。本文深入剖析中国、巴西、南非的饮食系统内部各类参与者的可持续性建构,提出全球和地方可持续饮食系统互动的尺度逻辑:① 从全球到地方的目标转化需要兼顾地方差异。中国、巴西、南非各自生成优先的可持续目标,分别针对食品安全、食物原真性和食物浪费、结构性的食物匮乏等问题。这些目标之间充满张力和博弈,不能等同替代。② 从地方到全球的经验反馈需要打破西方经验赋予的微观尺度的优越性,转向跨尺度的实践。发展中国家的可持续实践路径的要义在于发挥饮食系统各类参与者的能动性,调动资源形成有效的跨尺度行动网络。③ 发展中国家的经验表明尺度本身是方法,而不是目的,每个具体的可持续目标与适切的尺度方法匹配。有必要研究建议挖掘多元、差异的可持续模式,更加有针对性地促进当地乃至全球饮食系统的可持续发展。

关键词: 饮食地理, 饮食系统, 文化地理, 可持续发展, 地方化, 尺度

Abstract:

The industrialization of agriculture and the "de-localization" of production patterns, misty distribution processes, and inflated consumption desires have led to a continuous crisis in food systems, and the sustainability of food systems has become a challenge at the global scale. Current research on the sustainable food systems is confronted with the problem of scale. The sustainability goals at the global scale are ambitious and inclusive, but the differences at the local scale are not taken into account. In terms of pathways, the practices of Western countries have led to a "scalar trap", where the microscopic scales such as communities are overemphasized to the exclusion of the potential role of other scales. Based on perspectives of scale, this study analyzes the "sustainability" constructs of various actors within the food systems of China, Brazil, and South Africa, and proposes a scale logic for the transformation of food system sustainability goals and empirical feedback. The study finds that: (1) The transformation of goals from global to local scale needs to take into account local differences. China, Brazil, and South Africa generate their own priority sustainability goals, which address food safety, food authenticity and food waste, and structural food scarcity, respectively. These goals are fraught with tensions and trade-offs and cannot be equivalently substituted. (2) Empirical feedback from the local to the global scale requires a shift away from the micro-scale superiority conferred by Western experience and toward cross-scale practices. The sustainable practice pathways in developing countries lie in bringing into play the dynamics of various actors in the food system and mobilizing resources to form effective networks of action across scales. (3) The experience of developing countries suggests that scale is a method in itself, not an end in itself, and that each specific sustainability goal is matched with an appropriate scale approach, and that there is a need for research to suggest ways to tap into diverse and differentiated sustainability models so as to fully promote sustainable development of local and global food systems.

Key words: food geography, food systems, cultural geography, sustainable development, localization, scale