地理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (8): 1907-1919.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202208005

• 经济地理与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原城镇化发展的特殊思路与绿色发展路径

方创琳1,2()   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2022-05-30 修回日期:2022-07-20 出版日期:2022-08-25 发布日期:2022-10-25
  • 作者简介:方创琳(1966-), 男, 甘肃庆阳人, 研究员, 中国地理学会会员(S110001715M), 研究方向为城市地理、城市群发展与城镇化的资源环境效应等。E-mail: fangcl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK1005);国家自然科学基金创新研究群体项目(42121001)

Special thinking and green development path of urbanization in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

FANG Chuanglin1,2()   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2022-05-30 Revised:2022-07-20 Published:2022-08-25 Online:2022-10-25
  • Supported by:
    The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program(2019QZKK1005);Innovation Research Group Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China(42121001)

摘要:

青藏高原城镇化肩负着捍卫国家安全屏障与护卫国家生态安全屏障及“亚洲水塔”的特殊使命,对守护好世界上最后一方净土、确保“地球第三极”同全国一道基本实现现代化、让青藏高原各族人民生活更幸福、使青藏高原生态安全屏障更牢固、使国家安全屏障更坚固都发挥着不可替代的重要作用。本文详细论述了青藏高原新型城镇化与内地截然不同的特殊驱动过程、特殊发展道路、特殊发展目标、特殊发展格局、绿色发展模式与路径,认为青藏高原城镇化是一个在高寒缺氧环境下,由单一投资拉动、游客带动、服务驱动、对口支援等特殊驱动形成的低度开发型、文化传承型、守土固边型、护卫水塔型、小聚大散型、社会包容型、生态富民型城镇化过程。未来发展思路是:以守土固边为先导,保障国家安全,快稳有度,确保边境和农村地区有足量人口,到2035年高原常住人口将达到1600万人,城镇化率宜为52.5%左右,将长期稳定在城镇化发展的中期阶段,全面提升城镇化发展质量;以绿色发展为主导,不断提高生态产品和生态服务能力及水平,突出特色,彰显民风,弘扬文化,住在镇里,牧在乡里,就近就地镇民化,建设高原美丽城市与城镇;以小聚大散为布局原则,聚散有度,在散聚中形成由“三圈四带多节点”构成“星星点灯”式固边型城镇空间格局,突出“三圈”(西宁都市圈、拉萨城市圈和柴达木城镇圈)、“四带”(青藏铁路沿线城镇带、川藏铁路沿线城镇带、唐蕃古道沿线城镇带、边境地区固边城镇带)和“多节点”(多个重要城市节点和重要固边城镇)的集聚效应;以通道建设为保障,超前建设青藏高铁等基础设施,筑牢国家安全保障线,加快引进“新基建”上高原,建设高原智慧城市;加快边境城市土地制度改革,建设边境土地改革试验特区,以国土安全为重,在国家重大战略布局和国土空间规划中优先考虑边境城市。

关键词: 城镇化进程, 特殊使命, 特殊驱动过程与思路, 绿色发展路径, 青藏高原

Abstract:

Urbanization in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a special mission in defending the national security, the national ecological security and the Asian Water Tower. It plays an irreplaceable role in the world, which ensures the realization of modernization, the happiness of all ethnic groups, a stronger ecological security and a more solid national security barrier in this region. This study discusses in detail the special driving force, development path, development goals, development pattern, green development mode and green development path of new urbanization in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which are completely different from the inland areas. It is believed that the urbanization of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a process characterized by low-level development, cultural inheritance, national defence, water tower protection, small agglomeration and large dispersion, social inclusion, and ecological enrichment. It is driven by a single investment, tourists, services, and counterpart support in an alpine and anoxic environment. In the future, the urbanization development thinking in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is, firstly, to take the defence of the territory and the border as the guideline to ensure national security, and a sufficient population in the border and rural areas at a fast, stable and appropriate growth rate. By 2035, the permanent population of the plateau will reach 16 million, and the urbanization rate should be 52.5%, which will be stable in the middle stage of urbanization for a long time, and the quality of urbanization will be promoted comprehensively. Secondly, driven by green development, the ability and level of ecological products and ecological services will be continuously improved, highlighting characteristics and folk customs, and promoting cultural diversity and inclusiveness. And we encourage local herdsmen to live in the town and graze in the township so that they can build beautiful cities and towns and advance in-situ urbanization on the plateau. Thirdly, based on the principle of small agglomeration and large dispersion, the pattern of borderland security urbanization is composed of "three circles, four belts and multi-nodes", emphasizing the agglomeration effect of the three circles (Xining metropolitan area, Lhasa metropolitan area, and Qaidam urban circle), four belts (urban belt along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, urban belt along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway, town belt along the Tangbo Ancient Road, and border town zone), and multi-nodes (multiple important urban nodes, and important border towns). Fourthly, we should guarantee the channel development, including the construction of new infrastructure facilities such as the Qinghai-Tibet high-speed railway, and the building of plateau smart cities, so as to safeguard national security. Finally, taking territorial security as a top priority, we should speed up the reform of the land system in border cities, set up pilot special zones for borderland land reform, and focus on border cities in major national strategic layout and territorial spatial planning.

Key words: urbanization process, special mission, special driving process and thinking, green development path, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau