地理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (8): 1873-1891.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202208003

• 经济地理与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国经济地理思想的历史演变及发展走向

李小建1,2()   

  1. 1.河南大学黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心 地理与环境学院,开封 475001
    2.河南财经政法大学 城乡协调发展河南省协同创新中心 河南省城乡空间数据挖掘院士工作站,郑州 450046
  • 收稿日期:2021-12-27 修回日期:2022-04-25 出版日期:2022-08-25 发布日期:2022-10-25
  • 作者简介:李小建(1954-), 男, 河南孟津人, 教授, 博士生导师, 国际欧亚科学院院士, 研究方向为经济地理学。E-mail: xjli@henu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971223);黄河文明省部共建协同创新中心/黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心重大项目(2020M18)

History of the ideas on economic geography in China: Period focus, evolution and prospect

LI Xiaojian1,2()   

  1. 1. The College of Geography and Environmental Science, Key Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China
    2. Collaborative Innovation Center of Urban-Rural Coordinated Development, Henan University of Economics and Law, Zhengzhou 450046, China
  • Received:2021-12-27 Revised:2022-04-25 Published:2022-08-25 Online:2022-10-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971223);Project of Collaborative Innovation Center of Yellow River Civilization(2020M18)

摘要:

中国经济地理思想史是一部经济活动与地理环境关系思想的进展史。古代时期产生了以适应和利用地理条件发展经济活动的思想;近代时期经济地理学作为学术领域出现;现代时期I重视自然条件的利用,从国家需求角度研究生产布局与地理条件的关系;现代时期II从国土整治与国土规划角度切入人地关系,构建“点—轴系统”理论等空间结构理论,根据区域差异扩大趋势提出调控思想;现代时期III结合主体功能区研究人地关系,注重产业集聚、都市经济区、农区衰退及振兴等问题。中国经济地理思想演化可以梳理出3支脉络:① 史志脉络通过历史文献对经济区位和地方差异的描述,逐步探究经济活动与地理条件的关系;海量的地方志,以实例支持人地关系思想。② 从游记考察到现代考察和观测分析,为经济地理研究提供了重要的科学事实发现手段。③ 国外引进脉络与多元思想本土化,带来不同的研究方法和思维逻辑。后两支脉络逐渐融入前一脉络,以突出中国特色之趋势。经济地理思想史研究可对当前经济地理学发展提供3点启迪:① 加强经济活动与地理环境关系的条件规律探索;② 鼓励问题导向的批判性思维;③ 弥补中国经济地理学研究的弱项,如与整体论对应的还原论,与归纳法对应的演绎法。

关键词: 经济地理, 思想史, 中国, 人地关系, 地理思想

Abstract:

The history of Chinese economic geography as a research field is virtually an evolution of ideas on the relationship between economic activities and geographical environment. In ancient times, the idea on adapting to geographical conditions to cultivate economic activities had emerged, and numerous cases of regional practices were recorded in local chronicles. In the period from 1840 to 1948, economic geography appeared as a scientific discipline, and relevant research on agricultural and industrial geography was carried out. In the period from 1949 to 1978, the ideas on economic geography of the Soviet Union were fully introduced, with research focusing on the use of natural conditions and resources, and on the relationship between production distribution and geographical contexts to meet the national needs of economic development. In the period from 1979 to 2000, starting from territorial management and land planning, the important perspective formed on the relationship between man and land, and the theoretical progress was made in the establishment of Point-axis Concept and other spatial structural patterns. Economic geographers also made proposals on government regulations based on an expanding trend of regional differences. In the period from 2001 to 2020, one of the foci related to the relationship between man and land was the major fuction-oriented zoning, and other hot topics included issues of industrial agglomeration, urban economic zones, rural revitalization, and the impact of new factors on formation mechanism of the spatial structure of economic activities. The development of Chinese economic geography thought can be sorted into three threads. The first one is the long-lasting records that consist of rich historical documents, from the description of a large number of economic locations and differences of their geographical contexts, to the exploration of the relationship between economic activities and geographical environment. Together with a large number of local chronicles, the idea of man-land relations was hidden in the text. The second thread is the trajectory of travel notes which was developed into modern investigations and observations, providing important means of discovering scientific facts for the study of economic geography. The third thread is the introduction of ideas from other countries including investigation techniques, research methods and thinking logic, which further promotes the development of China's economic geography. The survey on the history of economic geography ideas can provide three enlightenments for further study of economic geography: (1) strengthening the exploration of the relationship between economic activities and the geographical environment; (2) encouraging problem-oriented critical thinking; (3) improving the weaknesses of China's economic geography research, such as the reduction theory and the deductive method.

Key words: economic geography, history of ideas, China, man-land relationship, geographical ideas