地理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (4): 1028-1038.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202204017

• 区域发展 • 上一篇    

基于最优供需分配的公共设施空间可达性分析

翟石艳1(), 何新新2, 孔云峰1(), 罗静静2, 宋根鑫2   

  1. 1. 河南大学黄河中下游数字地理技术教育部重点实验室,开封 475000
    2. 河南大学地理与环境学院,开封 475004
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-18 修回日期:2021-08-18 出版日期:2022-04-25 发布日期:2022-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 孔云峰(1967-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事空间分析、空间优化等研究。E-mail: yfkong@henu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:翟石艳(1983-), 女, 副教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事空间分析、空间优化和空间行为决策等研究。E-mail: zsycenu@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41871307);河南省高等学校重点科研项目(21A170007)

Measuring the spatial accessibility of public services by optimal supply-demand allocation

ZHAI Shiyan1(), HE Xinxin2, KONG Yunfeng1(), LUO Jingjing2, SONG Genxin2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Geospatial Technology for the Middle and Lower Yellow River Regions, Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475000, Henan, China
    2. College of Geography and Environmental Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China
  • Received:2020-12-18 Revised:2021-08-18 Published:2022-04-25 Online:2022-06-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No(41871307);Key Scientific Research Project of Henan Institution of Higher Education, No(21A170007)

摘要:

空间可达性是衡量公共服务设施公平性的重要指标,在医疗、教育、休闲等公共服务的布局规划中得到广泛应用。然而已有设施服务可达性模型难以充分反映服务供需关系,计算指标也缺乏物理意义。本文提出新的最优供需分配的公共设施空间可达性计算方法(OSD)取代现有方法。该方法基于最优供需分配模型,将设施服务分配给需求者,根据分配结果计算空间可达性指标。给定服务设施与需求的空间分布,以最小化旅行成本为目标,顾及设施服务能力,采用经典的运输问题模型确定最优的服务供需分配方案,进而度量服务的空间可达性。以郑州市金水区社区卫生服务为例,求解25个中心与1333个居住小区的最优服务配置。使用最优配置结果确定每个设施的服务范围、每个居住小区使用服务的旅行时间,以及特定时间阈值的服务覆盖比率。与流行的两步移动搜索法相比,新方法的计算指标具有明确的物理意义。本文提出的可达性评价方法无需参数,计算高效,结果易于解释,在公共服务评价及设施布局规划方面具有应用潜力。

关键词: 公共服务, 空间可达性, 最优供需分配, 案例研究

Abstract:

Spatial accessibility is an important index for measuring fairness in public services such as health care, education, and outdoor leisure. It has also been widely used in the layout planning of public facilities. However, the existing accessibility models cannot fully illustrate the direct relationship between service supply and demand, and thus, the accessibility indicators cannot be explained with explicit meanings. This article introduces a new method for measuring accessibility based on optimal supply and demand allocation, which is different from the supply-demand relationships in existing methods. Given the supply locations, the demand locations, their attributes, and the travel costs between them, the transportation problem model is used to allocate services to demands. The classical model can be easily solved with optimal total travel cost. Based on the model results, the spatial accessibility of services can be measured. The proposed method was tested on healthcare services in a district in Zhengzhou, Henan, China. There were 25 healthcare centres and 1333 residential communities in the study area. The instance model was effectively built by an open-source MIP solver in 2.2 seconds. The service area of each healthcare centre and the travel time from each community were obtained according to the modelling results. In addition, the coverage percentages with predefined service thresholds were calculated. The proposed method was also compared with popular methods, such as the two-step floating catchment area method (2SFCA), Gaussian 2SFCA, and gravity 2SFCA. Areas with poor healthcare services were identified by using the results from the three 2SFCA methods. However, the spatial variation in service accessibility might be very different when selecting different search thresholds and/or distance decay coefficients. The optimal supply-demand accessibility method (OSD) proposed in this study has advantages such as being parameter-free, easy to calculate, and easy to explain. The authors believe that the method has application potential to replace the existing methods in evaluating public services and facility planning.

Key words: public service, spatial accessibility, optimal service allocation, case study