地理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (4): 976-995.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202204014

• 区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国稀土对外贸易格局演化及影响因素

夏启繁1,2,3(), 杜德斌1,2,3, 段德忠1,2,3, 孙康3   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学全球创新与发展研究院,上海 200062
    2. 华东师范大学世界地理与地缘战略研究中心,上海 200062
    3. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200241
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-26 修回日期:2021-07-16 出版日期:2022-04-25 发布日期:2022-06-25
  • 作者简介:夏启繁(1997-), 男, 安徽安庆人, 博士生, 研究方向为世界地理与地缘政治。E-mail: 1154853112@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(19ZDA087)

Evolution and influencing factors of China's foreign trade in rare earth metals

XIA Qifan1,2,3(), DU Debin1,2,3, DUAN Dezhong1,2,3, SUN Kang3   

  1. 1. Institute for Global Innovation and Development, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. Institute for Geopolitics and Strategic Geography, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    3. School of Urban & Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China;
  • Received:2020-11-26 Revised:2021-07-16 Published:2022-04-25 Online:2022-06-25
  • Supported by:
    Major Projects of National Social Science Foundation of China, No(19ZDA087)

摘要:

从中美贸易摩擦到“科技冷战”以来,被誉为“高科技命脉”的稀土,日益成为国际博弈的前沿领域。在此背景下,厘清中国稀土进出口贸易流动态势、把握中国在国际稀土市场中的地位变动,对中国资源安全格局的整体优化和科技自立自强的长久维持具有一定意义。本文基于2008—2018年中国稀土进出口贸易数据、相关国家社会经济政治指标及联合国投票数据,借助相互依存指数、地缘亲和度模型、GIS空间技术以及负二项面板回归等手段,探讨了中国稀土产品对外贸易格局的演化及影响因素。研究发现:① 中国稀土贸易存在较大波动,出口额远大于进口额,整体呈现“升—降—升”发展态势。② 中国稀土进口市场高度集中且路径依赖增强,出口市场逐步多元且路径依赖减弱。中国主要出口具有较高附加值的中、下游产品,进口具有较低附加值的上游矿物类产品。③ 中国在全球稀土贸易相互依存格局中的优势地位整体强化。中国与多数友好型国家间的相互依存关系呈现优化态势,但与美国、加拿大、澳大利亚等分歧型国家之间的相互依存关系呈现恶化态势。④ 国家主体属性、国家间邻近性以及中国的贸易政策、贸易环境等对中国稀土对外贸易产生重要影响。

关键词: 稀土贸易, 时空格局, 相互依存, 中美关系, 影响因素

Abstract:

Since the Sino-U.S. trade friction to the "cold war of science and technology", rare earth, the "lifeline of high technology", has increasingly become the key point of the international games. Under the circumstances, it is of great significance to clarify the trend of China's rare earth trade and its role in the international rare earth market, to generally optimize China's resource security pattern and maintain the independence of science and technology in the long term. This paper uses the data from 2008 to 2018, including China's rare earth import and export trade data, the relevant national social, economic and political indicators, and the UN voting data. Then it discusses the spatial pattern evolution, interdependence evolution and main influence mechanism of China's rare earth products foreign trade, with the help of interdependence index, geographical affinity, GIS space technology and negative binomial panel regression. The results show that: (1) China's rare earth trade fluctuates greatly, and the export volume is much larger than the import volume, showing an "up-down-up" trend as a whole. (2) China's import market is highly concentrated and the path-dependence effect is enhanced, while the export market is gradually diversified and the path dependence is weakened. China mainly exports middle stream and downstream products with high added value and imports upstream mineral products with low added value. (3) China has strengthened its dominant position in the global rare earth trade interdependence pattern. The interdependence relationship between China and its most friendly countries has been strengthened, while that between China and the United States, Canada, Australia and other differentiated countries has been weakened. (4) The characteristics of countries, subject attribute proximity between countries and China's trade policy and trade environment have an important impact on China's rare earth import and export trade.

Key words: rare earth trade, spatiotemporal pattern, interdependence, Sino-US relation, influencing factor