地理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (4): 818-834.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202204004

• 理论与方法探索 • 上一篇    下一篇

地图投影与地缘政治理论构建——以麦金德地缘政治思想为例

何光强1,2(), 刘云刚3,4   

  1. 1. 华侨大学海上丝绸之路研究院,厦门 361021
    2. 华侨大学21世纪海上丝绸之路研究中心,厦门 361021
    3. 华南师范大学地理科学学院 亚洲地理研究中心,广州 510631
    4. 华南师范大学北斗研究院,佛山 528225
  • 收稿日期:2021-10-13 修回日期:2022-03-01 出版日期:2022-04-25 发布日期:2022-06-25
  • 作者简介:何光强(1988-), 男, 湖南湘潭人, 博士, 讲师, 研究方向为地缘政治学、政治地图。E-mail: heguangqiang501@sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(18CGJ008)

Map projection and the construction of geopolitical theory: A cartographic perspective on Mackinder's geopolitical thought

HE Guangqiang1,2(), LIU Yungang3,4   

  1. 1. Maritime Silk Road Institute, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, Fujian, China
    2. Center for 21st Century Maritime Silk Road Studies, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, Fujian, China
    3. School of Geography, Centre for Asian Geography Studies, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510630, China
    4. Beidou Research Institute, South China Normal University, Foshan 528225, Guangdong, China
  • Received:2021-10-13 Revised:2022-03-01 Published:2022-04-25 Online:2022-06-25
  • Supported by:
    National Social Science Foundation of China, No(18CGJ008)

摘要:

地缘政治理论的提出和发展深刻烙印了地图的影响。在地缘政治发展史中,不同地图投影既服务于各思想家的理论提出,也深入到各思想家在不同时期对自身理论的动态修正。地图投影到底是如何参与到地缘政治理论构建过程中的?本文在既有地缘政治地图研究的基础上,从空间性和文本性两大地图基本属性出发,通过阐释并沟通地图的空间分析与话语分析功能,探讨地图投影与地缘政治理论构建间的关系。一方面,地图投影变形抽象后的心象地图框架为构建地缘政治理论提供了空间依托;另一方面,地图投影通过地图变形在复杂情境中聚集了丰富的文本性含义。在地图投影各层次文本性的互文(互补性叙事)下,新的地图话语得以产生并渗透进心象地图,具象式推动了地缘政治理论核心概念的生成和逻辑关系的构建。综合考虑麦金德的地图观影响,本文对麦金德“心脏地带”地缘政治思想变迁各阶段(1904年、1919年、1943年)地图投影透视的分析验证了该关系框架的解释力。这启示该分析框架在其他地缘政治理论研究中的潜在适用性,更期待在百年变局和复兴全局等交织下的复杂情境中,基于地图投影创新互文下的中国地缘政治理论构建。

关键词: 地图投影, 地缘政治, 理论构建, 互文, 麦金德, 心脏地带

Abstract:

The formulation and development of geopolitical theory have profoundly imprinted the influence of maps. In the history of the development of geopolitics, different map projections not only serve different thinkers' theoretical formulation, but also penetrate into the dynamic revisions of their own theories in different periods. How exactly do map projections participate in the construction of geopolitical theories? Based on existing cartographic research of geopolitics, this article discusses the relationship between map projection and the construction of geopolitical theory by interpreting and communicating the spatial analysis with the discourse analysis in map functions, from these two basic attributes of maps, namely spatiality and textuality. On the one hand, the framework of mental map after a map projection deformation and abstraction provides the spatial support for constructing a geopolitical theory; on the other hand, the map projection gathers abundant layers of textuality through map distortion in complex contexts. Under the intertextualities (complementary narratives) among all layers of textuality in map projection, new map discourse can be generated and infiltrate into the mental map, which promotes the generation of core concepts and the construction of logical relations of geopolitical theory in a figurative way. Considering the influence of Mackinder's map view, in this paper, the explanatory power of the relationship framework is verified through making a perspective analysis from map projections on all stages (1904, 1919, 1943) of the change of Mackinder's Heartland geopolitical thought. This reveals the potential applicability of the analysis framework in other geopolitical theories researches. We are looking forward to the construction of China's geopolitical theory based on the intertextuality of the innovation of map projections in the complex contexts interweaved with the world experiencing a level of change unseen in a century and the strategic goal of achieving national rejuvenation and so on.

Key words: map projection, geopolitics, theory construction, intertext, Mackinder, Heartland