地理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (3): 547-558.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202203004

• 理论与方法探索 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原放牧强度空间化方法与应用

胡晓阳1,2(), 王兆锋1,2(), 张镱锂1,2,3, 宫殿清1,2   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3.青藏高原地球系统与资源环境国家重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-30 修回日期:2022-01-24 出版日期:2022-03-25 发布日期:2022-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 王兆锋(1976-), 男, 山东齐河人, 博士, 副研究员, 主要从事青藏高原土地利用变化及其土壤环境效应研究。E-mail: wangzf@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:胡晓阳(1997-), 女, 山东临沂人, 硕士生, 主要从事土地利用研究。E-mail: huxiaoyang321@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK0603);国家自然科学基金项目(41861134038);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20040201)

Spatialization method of grazing intensity and its application in Tibetan Plateau

HU Xiaoyang1,2(), WANG Zhaofeng1,2(), ZHANG Yili1,2,3, GONG Dianqing1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. State Key Laboratory of Tibetan Plateau Earth System, Resources and Environment, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2020-09-30 Revised:2022-01-24 Published:2022-03-25 Online:2022-05-25
  • Supported by:
    The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program(2019QZKK0603);Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China(41861134038);The Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA20040201)

摘要:

人类活动强度空间化是分析人类活动区域差异及其变化过程的基础,也是准确辨识土地变化驱动因素、合理调控人类活动的科学依据。当前人类活动强度研究多以数理方法对代用指标进行空间化,缺乏对人类活动机理过程的反映,也制约了人类活动强度空间异质性的展现。本文以青藏高原放牧活动为研究对象,在综合放牧喜好和草地管理策略的基础上,从放牧行为机理的角度,提出了区分放牧区与非放牧区的方法;以放牧密度衡量草地整体放牧压力,以放牧概率刻画放牧活动的空间差异,构建了区域放牧强度空间化模型。并以高原典型牧业县—泽库县为例,基于乡镇级牧业数据和自然地理基础信息进行了实证研究。结果表明:空间化结果较好反映了泽库县放牧强度的空间特征;直接指标的选取和客观的赋值方法提高了放牧强度空间化结果的准确性;比现有研究结果更能体现出县域内放牧强度的空间差异,且放牧强度变化过程与同期NDVI值变化具有较好的耦合性。本文为人类活动空间化方法研究提供了有益参考。

关键词: 人类活动, 放牧强度, 放牧密度, 放牧概率, 青藏高原

Abstract:

Spatialization of human activity intensity is the basis for examining regional differences of human activities and its change process, and it is also the scientific basis for accurately identifying the driving factors of land change and rationally regulating human activities. The current research on human activity intensity mostly uses mathematical methods to spatially assign indirect indicators, which lacks the reflection of the mechanism of human activity and also restricts the display of the spatial heterogeneity of human activity intensity. This paper took grazing activity on the Tibetan Plateau as the research object in an attempt to spatialize grazing intensity. First, based on grazing preferences and grassland management strategies, and from the perspective of grazing mechanism, we proposed a method to distinguish grazing areas and non-grazing areas; then, we used grazing density to measure the overall grazing pressure of grassland, and used grazing probability to describe the spatial difference of grazing pressure. In addition, we developed a spatial model of regional grazing intensity according to grazing density and grazing probability. As a case study, we used this model to spatialize grazing intensity of Zeku County, a typical pastoral area on the Tibetan Plateau, based on township-level animal husbandry data and basic physical geographic information. The results showed that the spatial model of grazing intensity we developed can reflect the spatial characteristics of grazing activity well, and the selection of direct indicators and objective assignment methods improve the accuracy of the spatialization results. It is also found that the results of this paper can more clearly reflected the spatial difference of grazing intensity within the county than the previous research results, and the change process of grazing intensity had a better coupling with the change of NDVI value over the same period. This paper could provide a useful reference for the research on spatialization methods of human activities.

Key words: human activity, grazing intensity, grazing density, grazing probability, Tibetan Plateau