地理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 77 ›› Issue (2): 331-352.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202202005

• 百年变局与世界地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国跨国城际技术通道的空间演化及其影响因素

刘承良1,2,3(), 闫姗姗3   

  1. 1.华东师范大学全球创新与发展研究院,上海 200062
    2.华东师范大学世界地理与地缘战略研究中心,上海 200062
    3.华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200241
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-21 修回日期:2021-05-05 出版日期:2022-02-25 发布日期:2022-04-25
  • 作者简介:刘承良(1979-), 男, 湖北人, 教授, 博导, 研究方向主要为科技地理与区域创新。E-mail: clliu@re.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(21ZDA011)

Spatial evolution and determinants of transnational technology transfer network in China

LIU Chengliang1,2,3(), YAN Shanshan3   

  1. 1. Institute for Global Innovation and Development, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. Center for World Geography and Geostrategic Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    3. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2020-07-21 Revised:2021-05-05 Published:2022-02-25 Online:2022-04-25
  • Supported by:
    Major Program of National Social Science Foundation of China(21ZDA011)

摘要:

专利转移是国家和地区获取外部技术的重要通道,也是刻画技术流供求关系最直接的方式。基于全球—地方视角,本文建构了技术转移的跨国—国内城际双通道理论框架,融合社会网络、GIS空间分析和空间计量模型,尝试刻画中国城市跨国城际技术通道的空间演化规律及其影响因素。研究发现:① 中国跨国城际技术通道网络的空间异质性显著但随时间逐渐减弱。② 跨国城际技术通道加速东移,从北美和西欧(以美国纽约湾区和硅谷地区技术创新中心、加勒比海离岸金融中心、伦敦全球金融中心等为核心)快速向东亚(以日本东京、韩国首尔科技创新中心为核心)和东南亚(以新加坡科技创新中心为核心)扩展,中国对美国和西欧的专利技术依赖性明显减弱。③ 以北京、上海、深圳—中国香港、台北—新竹为核心的京津冀、长三角、粤港澳大湾区和中国台湾北部四大创新集群成为中国跨国城际技术流的集散地和全球性技术创新枢纽。中国香港凭借跨国公司及分支机构云集及离岸金融低税收优势,技术中介作用不断增强并成为技术转移的首位城市,而中国台湾的核心作用不断减弱。④ 国内通道的规模、强度以及城际紧密度有利于跨国城际技术引进通道的扩展;此外,地方经济实力对跨国联系通道具有正向促进作用,其技术实力和对外经济联系程度则具有多方面的影响。

关键词: 专利权交易, 技术转移双通道, 城际技术通道网络, 空间演化, 影响因素, 中国

Abstract:

Patent transfer is an important channel for countries and regions to obtain technology from abroad, and it is also the most direct way to portray the relationship between supply and demand of technology flow. Based on the glocalisation perspective, this paper constructs a framework of technology transfer characterized by the transnational-domestic dual-channel theory. Combining social networks, GIS spatial analysis and spatial measurement models, it attempts to describe the spatial evolution and determining factors of transnational technological channels in Chinese cities. The research found that: (1) The spatial heterogeneity of China's transnational technology channel network is significant but gradually has weakened over time. (2) The transnational technology channel accelerates eastward movement, expanding from the technologically developed regions of North America and Western Europe (the New York Bay Area and Silicon Valley, the Caribbean offshore financial center, the London offshore financial center, etc.) to East Asia and Southeast Asia (Japan, South Korea and Singapore), China's technological dependence on the United States and Western Europe has been greatly reduced. (3) The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration, the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and the northern Taiwan urban agglomeration with Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen-Guangzhou, Taipei-Hsinchu as the cores have become global technological innovation centres and hubs for transnational technology transfer flows. With the help of connections between headquarters and branch of multinational companies, offshore financial convenience and low tax advantages, Hong Kong mainly plays the role of technology intermediary and has become the city with the most technology transfer, while the core role of Taiwan Province is declining. (4) Intercity technology pipelines have a positive effect on transnational technology transfer pipelines. Enlarging the scale and flow of technology pipelines between cities and the distance between cities is conducive to expanding transnational technology introduction pipelines, while the intermediary of cities has no significant impact. In addition, the economic strength of a city has a positive influence on the promotion of transnational technology transfer pipelines, while technological strength and foreign economic relations have multiple effects.

Key words: patent rights transaction, technology transfer dual pipelines, technology channel network, spatial evolution, determinant factor, China