地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (9): 2203-2223.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202109012

• 干旱区环境变化与人类适应 • 上一篇    下一篇

毛乌素沙地风沙环境变化研究的理论和新认识

徐志伟(), 鹿化煜   

  1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院自然地理学系,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-28 修回日期:2020-10-26 出版日期:2021-09-25 发布日期:2021-11-25
  • 作者简介:徐志伟(1988-), 男, 江苏人, 副教授, 主要从事地貌过程与环境变化研究。E-mail: zhiweixu@nju.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41871012);科技部“全球变化及应对”重点专项(2016YFA0600503)

Aeolian environmental change studies in the Mu Us Sandy Land, north-central China: Theory and recent progress

XU Zhiwei(), LU Huayu   

  1. Department of Physical Geography, School of Geography and Ocean Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2020-04-28 Revised:2020-10-26 Published:2021-09-25 Online:2021-11-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41871012);The Global Change Program of Ministry of Science and Technology of China(2016YFA0600503)

摘要:

作为地球环境系统的重要组成部分,沙漠和沙地对气候变化响应敏感。沙漠沙地的环境变化关系到区域的可持续发展,并且通过一系列反馈作用,会影响区域与全球的气候环境。位于中国北方中部的毛乌素沙地是全球中纬度地区的典型沙地,其环境变化与全球其他沙漠沙地具有相似性和同步性。中国学者对毛乌素沙地风沙环境变化的研究开展较早,在国内外有重要的影响。本文系统梳理了该方面的相关研究,围绕“风沙环境变化的过程与机制”这一核心问题,总结学术界在毛乌素沙地晚新生代形成发展、晚第四纪扩张与多旋回变化、全新世中期固定以及晚全新世沙丘再活化等方面取得的重要进展,尤其是获取了毛乌素沙地不同阶段风沙环境变化的关键证据,并据此提出“构造—轨道尺度上沙地形成与变化的全球温度变化驱动”“千年—百年尺度沙丘系统的非线性响应”等新的理论认识。未来应继续加强沉积证据的积累、新测试手段的拓展应用、基于过程分析的精细重建、数值模拟与预测等研究,着力探究风沙环境变化的动力学机制、人与干旱区环境复杂系统的耦合关系以及各圈层的互馈作用,这对于自然地理学学科传承、交叉学科的融合发展以及地球系统科学的理论构建都具有深远意义。

关键词: 风沙活动, 地貌过程, 环境重建, 气候变化, 干旱区, 毛乌素沙地

Abstract:

Sand seas and semi-arid dune fields, an important component of the earth environmental system, is sensitive to global climate change. Meanwhile, environmental changes in sand seas and dune fields influence regional sustainability, and can also affect regional climate and global environment through feedbacks of different scales. The Mu Us Sandy Land, located in the north-central part of China, is one of the typical semi-arid dune fields in the middle latitude. Its aeolian environmental change during the past is comparable and synchronous with some other sand seas and dune fields around the world. The study of aeolian environmental change in the Mu Us Sandy Land has a long history in China. This paper reviews and summarizes the theory and new findings in the study of processes and mechanisms of aeolian environmental change in the Mu Us Sandy Land. Important progresses have been made in recent decades focusing on the late Cenozoic evolution of the study area, its late Quaternary expansion and polycyclic changes, and dune field stabilization during the middle Holocene and dune reactivation since the late Holocene. Key sedimentary evidence has been found to support these new findings, and new theories about dune field evolution at the tectonic and orbital scales in response to global temperature change and nonlinear response of dune systems at millennial and centennial scales have been proposed. In the future, by collecting more crucial sedimentary evidence, the application of state-of-art technique, fine-scale and process-informed paleoenvironmental reconstruction, and numerical modeling and projection studies, our understanding can be significantly improved about the dynamical mechanisms of aeolian environmental change, the coupling of human-environment complex system in the drylands, and the processes and feedbacks in the Earth surface environmental system. This will also have great significance for the development in the field of physical geography, integration of interdisciplinary studies, and theory exploration of the Earth System Science.

Key words: aeolian activity, geomorphological processes, environmental reconstruction, climate change, dryland, Mu Us Sandy Land