地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (8): 1939-1950.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202108009

• 城市与人类健康 • 上一篇    下一篇

居民城市公共安全感知与社区环境——基于北京大规模调查问卷的分析

谌丽1(), 许婧雪2,3, 张文忠2(), 解扬洋1, 党云晓4, 湛东升5   

  1. 1.北京联合大学应用文理学院,北京 100191
    2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    4.浙江财经大学土地与城乡发展研究院,杭州 310018
    5.浙江工业大学管理学院,杭州 310023
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-17 修回日期:2021-01-30 出版日期:2021-08-25 发布日期:2021-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 张文忠(1966-), 男, 内蒙古呼和浩特人, 博士, 研究员, 博士生导师, 研究方向为城市和区域发展。E-mail: zhangwz@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:谌丽(1985-), 女, 四川绵阳人, 博士, 副教授, 研究方向为城市居住环境。E-mail: chenlicas@foxmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42071215);国家自然科学基金项目(41871170);北京市属高校高水平教师队伍建设支持计划项目(CIT& TCD201904075);北京市属高校高水平教师队伍建设支持计划项目(CIT&TCD20180326)

Residents' sense of urban public security and community environment:Analysis based on a large-scale questionnaire survey of Beijing

CHEN Li1(), XU Jingxue2,3, ZHANG Wenzhong2(), XIE Yangyang1, DANG Yunxiao4, ZHAN Dongsheng5   

  1. 1. College of Arts and Sciences, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100191, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Region Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4. Institute of Land and Urban-rural Development, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou 310018, China
    5. School of Management, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China
  • Received:2020-02-17 Revised:2021-01-30 Published:2021-08-25 Online:2021-10-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(42071215);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41871170);Supporting Plan for Cultivating High Level Teachers in Colleges and Universities in Beijing(CIT& TCD201904075);Supporting Plan for Cultivating High Level Teachers in Colleges and Universities in Beijing(CIT&TCD20180326)

摘要:

新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情的爆发使得民众对公共安全问题的关注到了前所未有的程度,社区作为社会治理基本单元,在防疫减灾中所发挥的作用尤为突出。本文基于北京2019年城市体检问卷调查数据,采用多层线性模型检验个体属性及社区环境指标对公共安全感知的影响。研究发现,公共安全感知的差异主要来自个体属性的不同,老年人及健康状况一般或较差的群体,以及低收入、低学历、待业人群的安全感相对较低;安全感的社区差异显著,人口稠密、公交线路密集的社区居民安全感较低,道路交叉口较多的社区安全感较高;社区离Ⅰ型应急避难设施和医院的距离越近,居民安全感越高,但中小型设施影响不显著;良好的社区社会环境对居民安全感具有非常明显的正向影响,但租户很难从物业管理水平的提高中获益。据此本文提出了建设安全韧性社区的若干建议。

关键词: 城市公共安全, 社区环境, 安全感知, 多层模型, 北京

Abstract:

The novel coronavirus epidemic has led to an unprecedented concern regarding public security. Communities, as the basic units of social governance, play a prominent role during this period. However, little is known about the relationship between residents' sense of public security and their community environment in the existing geography and planning literature. To fill this gap in the research, this paper builds a theoretical framework to identify personal and community-level factors that influence the sense of public security. Based on a large-scale survey conducted in Beijing in 2019, we use multilevel linear models to analyze how and to what extent personal and community features impact this sense. The results show that (1) most of the personal attributes have significant effects on the sense of public security. Those who are older or less healthy are more likely to report a lower sense of security, and residents with lower incomes or education levels are also liable to suffer from insecurity. Stable employment has a positive effect on people's sense of security, and unemployed people report the lowest sense of security compared to others. Migrants feel safer than local residents, the main reason is that they compared their current city with their hometown and found Beijing to be much safer. (2) There is significant difference in residents' sense of public security across communities. The model results suggest that a built environment with a denser population and a bus route has a negative effect on the sense of security, while open space with more road crossings can improve residents' safety perception. Additionally, residents will feel more secure if their community gets closer to type I emergency shelters and hospitals. However, the influences of small- and medium-sized facilities are not significant, such as type II/III emergency shelters and community healthcare centers. (3) The social environment of the community plays a more important role in promoting residents' sense of public security than the built environment. However, it is found that renters can hardly benefit from the improvement of property management. Based on these findings, the paper provides some suggestions for improving the community's safety and resilience.

Key words: urban public security, community environment, sense of security, multilevel model, Beijing