地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (8): 1895-1909.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202108006

• 城市与人类健康 • 上一篇    下一篇

气候变化与多维度可持续城市化

陈明星1,2(), 先乐1,2, 王朋岭3,4, 丁子津1   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    3.中国气象局国家气候中心,北京 100081
    4.兰州区域气候中心,兰州 730020
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-20 修回日期:2021-07-08 出版日期:2021-08-25 发布日期:2021-10-25
  • 作者简介:陈明星(1982-), 男, 安徽巢湖人, 博士, 研究员, 主要从事城镇化与区域发展研究。E-mail: chenmx@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41822104);国家自然科学基金项目(42042027);中国科学院基础前沿科学研究计划从0到1原始创新项目(ZDBS-LY-DQC005);中国科学院战略性先导专项(XDA23100301);中国科学院青年创新促进会会员人才专项(CAS2017072)

Climate change and multi-dimensional sustainable urbanization

CHEN Mingxing1,2(), XIAN Yue1,2, WANG Pengling3,4, DING Zijin1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resource and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China
    4. Lanzhou Regional Climate Center, Lanzhou 730020, China
  • Received:2020-06-20 Revised:2021-07-08 Published:2021-08-25 Online:2021-10-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41822104);National Natural Science Foundation of China(42042027);The Chinese Academy of Sciences Basic Frontier Science Research Program from 0 to 1 Original Innovation Project(ZDBS-LY-DQC005);The Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA23100301);Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS2017072)

摘要:

全球大规模城市化和气候变化已是不争的事实,这是全人类需要共同面对和关注的突出问题。当前对于两者之间的复杂关系以及城市化进程如何科学应对气候变化并不清晰,从科学、管理到实践都需要进一步加强探究,以实现全球和区域可持续发展。本文首先给出全球大规模城市化和气候变化发生的基本事实,综述归纳城市化与气候变化的相互影响以及可能机制,城市化导致热岛效应、降水分配不均以及极端天气,并具有局地—区域—全球多尺度叠加效应,加剧了全球气候变化问题;气候变化对城市化的影响主要表现为能源消费变化、死亡率与传染病传播、海平面上升、极端天气对基础设施的破坏、水资源短缺等方面。简要梳理相关的国际研究和行动联盟,从城市化的4个关键维度:人口、土地、经济和社会视角出发,提出适应与减缓气候变化的多维度可持续城市化的分析框架。呼吁加强自然与人文学科交叉,将城市化等人类活动纳入地—气系统,探究人—地—气复杂耦合过程,从城市化为代表的人类活动角度的适应与减缓,或许是应对气候变化的最关键和最现实的路径。

关键词: 可持续城市化, 全球变化, 交互作用, 人—地—气耦合, 适应与减缓

Abstract:

It is disputable that global large-scale urbanization and climate change has become an outstanding issue, which requires the common concern of mankind. However, it is not yet clear what is the complex relationship between urbanization and climate change and how to scientifically deal with climate change in the process of urbanization. Further exploration from science and management to practice are needed in order to achieve global and regional sustainable development. This paper first displayed the basic facts of mass urbanization and climate change and summarized interactions and possible mechanisms of urbanization and climate change. Urbanization leads to heat island effect, uneven precipitation distribution and extreme weather, together with local-regional-global multi-scale superposition effect, which aggravates global climate change. The impact of climate change on urbanization is mainly manifested in the aspects such as changes of energy consumption, mortality and the spread of infectious diseases, sea level rise, extreme weather damage to infrastructure and water shortage. This paper also briefly reviewed relevant international research and joint actions, and put forward an analysis framework of multidimensional sustainable urbanization adapting to and mitigating climate change, from the perspective of key dimensions of urbanization, namely, population, land use, economy and society. We call on to strengthen the interdisciplinary research of science and humanities, take urbanization and other human activities into consideration of the land - atmosphere system, and explore the human-land-atmosphere coupling process. The adaptation and mitigation from the perspective of human activities represented by urbanization might be the most critical and realistic way to deal with climate change.

Key words: sustainable urbanization, global change, interaction, human-land-atmosphere coupling, land-atmosphere coupling, adaptation and mitigation