地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (8): 1848-1864.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202108003

• 产业与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

模块化生产下中国汽车产业集群空间组织重构——以一汽-大众为例

赵梓渝1(), 王士君2, 陈肖飞3()   

  1. 1.青岛大学旅游与地理科学学院,青岛 266071
    2.东北师范大学地理科学学院,长春 130024
    3.河南大学黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心暨黄河文明省部共建协同创新中心,开封 475001
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-18 修回日期:2021-04-19 出版日期:2021-08-25 发布日期:2021-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 陈肖飞(1986-), 男, 河南三门峡人, 副教授, 硕导, 研究方向为产业集群与区域发展。E-mail: chenfei_niglas@163.com
  • 作者简介:赵梓渝(1986-), 男, 吉林长春人, 博士, 讲师, 硕导, 研究方向为城市网络与人口流动。E-mail: 171462539@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41630749);国家自然科学基金项目(41771161);国家自然科学基金项目(42001176);教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金(20YJCZH241)

Beyond locality in restructuring the spatial organization of China's automobile industry clusters under modular production: A case study of FAW-Volkswagen

ZHAO Ziyu1(), WANG Shijun2, CHEN Xiaofei3()   

  1. 1. School of Tourism and Geography Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China
    2. School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
    3. Key Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development & Yellow River Civilization by Provincial and Ministerial Co-construction of Collaborative Innovation Center, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China
  • Received:2020-05-18 Revised:2021-04-19 Published:2021-08-25 Online:2021-10-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41630749);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41771161);National Natural Science Foundation of China(42001176);Youth Foundation of Humanities and Social Sciences of Ministry of Education(20YJCZH241)

摘要:

在以模块化为代表的第三次汽车工业生产方式变革背景下,新生产方式如何影响汽车工业空间组织演化,如何基于经济地理学阐释其发生机制及剖析对特定产业集群的影响作用,成为亟需解决的理论和现实问题。本文以一汽-大众为例,基于整车制造的本土全覆盖一级供应链映射产业集群组织,探讨地方—区域尺度下模块化生产对于汽车产业集群空间组织的影响。结果显示:① 地方式微:本地集聚程度下降。模块化生产所带来的规模经济在一定程度上克服运输成本,导致大型整车集团产业转移后对东道地生产依赖的下降和零部件供应商空间集聚的降低;② 超越地方:生产网络跨区重构。模块化生产将重组区域生产网络的组织结构,反映出尺度生产和尺度重组过程对空间经济动态的重要性。长三角地区凭借制造业区域优势和完整汽车零部件产业链,以产业集群作为行动主体参与到一汽-大众全国4个城市整车厂生产网络的分工协作中,产生了“超越地方”的竞争优势;③ 规模经济效应、知识技术共享和企业组织强化共同驱动模块化生产下汽车产业集群的空间组织重构。研究有助于理解生产方式调整与制造业产业集群空间组织结构演化的互动机制,同时为以经济、制度、社会和创新为视角的产业地理研究提供有益补充。

关键词: 产业集群, 集群网络, 模块化生产, 供应链, 汽车工业, 中国

Abstract:

Under the background of the third revolution of production mode in the automobile industry, as represented by modularization, there arise a series of urgent theoretical and practical problems: how the new production mode affects the evolution of the spatial organization of the automobile industry, how to explain its mechanism based on economic geography, and how to analyze its effects on specific industrial clusters. Taking FAW-Volkswagen as an example, based on the local full-coverage first-level supply chain mapping industry cluster organization of vehicle manufacturing, this paper explores the effects of modular production on the spatial organization of automobile industry clusters at the local-regional scale. Results indicate that: (1) The degree of local agglomeration decreases with the decline of local economy. To a certain extent, the scale economy created by modular production overcomes transportation cost, leading to both the weakened production dependence of large-scale vehicle groups on the host area after industrial transfer and the reduced spatial agglomeration of parts suppliers. (2) Beyond locality: the production network between regions is reconstructed. Under modular production, regional production networks will be reorganized, which reflects the importance of scale production and scale reorganization for spatial economic dynamics. When the Yangtze River Delta region, with its regional advantages in the manufacturing industry and its complete auto parts industry chain, takes part in the division and cooperation of the production network of FAW-Volkswagen automobile factories in four cities across the country in the form of industry clusters, "beyond locality" competitive advantages are created. (3) Scale economic effect, knowledge technology sharing, and enterprise organization strengthening jointly drive the spatial reconstruction of China's automobile industry clusters under modular production. This study provides insight to understand the interactive mechanism between the adjustment of production mode and the evolution of the spatial organization structure of manufacturing industry clusters, offering beneficial complements to studies on industrial geography from the perspectives of economy, system, society, and innovation.

Key words: industrial cluster, cluster network, modular production, supply chain, automobile industry, China