地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (6): 1438-1454.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202106009

• 乡村发展与聚落研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国县域乡村脆弱性空间特征与形成机制及对策

杨忍(), 潘瑜鑫   

  1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院 中国区域协调发展与乡村建设研究院,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2020-05-20 修回日期:2021-04-29 出版日期:2021-06-25 发布日期:2021-08-25
  • 作者简介:杨忍(1984-), 男, 贵州毕节人, 博士, 副教授, 博士生导师, 研究方向为乡村地理、城乡发展与土地利用。E-mail: yangren0514@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    广东省重点领域研发计划(2020B0202010002);国家自然科学基金项目(41871177);国家自然科学基金项目(41801088)

Spatial patterns, formation mechanism and coping strategies of rural vulnerability in China at the county level

YANG Ren(), PAN Yuxin   

  1. School of Geography and Planning, China Regional Coordinated Development and Rural Construction Institute, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2020-05-20 Revised:2021-04-29 Published:2021-06-25 Online:2021-08-25
  • Supported by:
    Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province(2020B0202010002);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41871177);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41801088)

摘要:

基于乡村脆弱性本质内涵,构建了中国县域乡村脆弱性综合测度的指标体系,对中国县域乡村脆弱性水平进行综合测度;通过遴选具有典型代表性的5条样带,深化分析中国乡村脆弱性的区域差异特征及其形成机制,并提出具有针对性的应对策略。结果表明:① 中国县域乡村脆弱性整体上处于较低脆弱度和中脆弱度阈值区间,并具明显的空间差异性,沿“博台线”呈南北分异的空间格局,东北部乡村脆弱性偏低,西南部乡村脆弱较高。② 外部性环境因素是诱发乡村脆弱性的先导因素,生态暴露、生态敏感和生态适应构成的乡村生态子系统是乡村脆弱性的根本性影响因素;经济暴露、经济敏感和经济适应构成的乡村经济子系统是乡村脆弱性的核心影响因素;社会暴露、社会敏感和社会适应组成的乡村社会子系统也是乡村脆弱性的重要影响因素。③ 以“地理区位、乡村脆弱性主导驱动因素和脆弱性程度”为依据,将中国县域乡村脆弱性划分为8个地域类型区。不同类型区域,遵循因地制宜原则,破除地区根植性和路径依赖,增强乡村地域系统扰动源的预测和监测,并对系统自身敏感性进行科学管制,提升乡村系统的适应能力,促进乡村可持续发展。

关键词: 乡村脆弱性, 乡村地域系统, 乡村可持续发展, 乡村振兴, 乡村地理学, 中国

Abstract:

Based on the essential connotation of rural vulnerability, this study constructs an indicator system for the comprehensive measurement of rural vulnerability in China at the county level. Through the selection of five typical representative transects, we will deepen the analysis of the regional differences in China's rural vulnerability and its formation mechanism and propose targeted coping strategies. The results show that: (1) The rural vulnerability of counties in China is generally within the threshold range of low and medium vulnerability characterized by obvious spatial differences. Along the "Bole-Taipei Line", there is a spatial pattern of north-south differentiation. Villages in southwestern China tends to have higher vulnerability than those in northeastern China. (2) External environmental factors are the leading factors that induce rural vulnerability. The rural ecological subsystem, composed of ecological exposure, ecological sensitivity, and ecological adaptation, is the fundamental influencing factor of rural vulnerability. The rural economic subsystem, which is composed of economic exposure, economic sensitivity, and economic adaptation, is the core influencing factor of rural vulnerability. The social subsystem, composed of social exposure, social sensitivity, and social adaptation, is also an important factor influencing rural vulnerability. (3) On the basis of "geographical location, the dominant driving factors of rural vulnerability and the degree of rural vulnerability", rural vulnerability in China at the county level can be identified into eight categories. According to the principle of adapting measures to local conditions, we should break down the regional embeddedness and path dependence. We should strengthen the prediction and monitoring of the sources of disturbance in the rural-area system and scientifically control the sensitivity of the system itself, then improve the adaptation of the rural system to ensure sustainable development of rural areas.

Key words: rural vulnerability, rural regional system, rural sustainable development, rural revitalization, rural geography, China