地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (6): 1408-1421.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202106007

• 乡村发展与聚落研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国乡村发展进程与乡村振兴路径

郭远智1(), 刘彦随1,2()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100190
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-09 修回日期:2021-04-19 出版日期:2021-06-25 发布日期:2021-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘彦随(1965-), 男, 陕西绥德人, 研究员, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110005331M), 主要从事农业地理学与乡村地理学、土地利用与区域可持续发展研究。E-mail: liuys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:郭远智(1990-), 男, 江西南康人, 助理研究员, 主要从事城乡转型与乡村可持续发展研究。E-mail: guoyz. 16b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41931293);国家自然科学基金项目(42001203);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA23070300)

The process of rural development and paths for rural revitalization in China

GUO Yuanzhi1(), LIU Yansui1,2()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
  • Received:2020-07-09 Revised:2021-04-19 Published:2021-06-25 Online:2021-08-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41931293);National Natural Science Foundation of China(42001203);Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA23070300)

摘要:

乡村发展是乡村地域系统循环累积与动态演化的结果,全面梳理乡村发展历史脉络与地域分异格局,对于科学推动新时代乡村振兴战略落实具有重要意义。基于人地关系地域系统理论和人地系统科学认知,本文解析了1978—2050年中国乡村发展演化进程,探讨了乡村转型发展与乡村振兴的内在逻辑,揭示了中国县域乡村振兴水平的空间格局,进而提出了新时代乡村振兴的关键问题及其路径对策。研究表明:① 中国1978—2050年的乡村发展可划分为解决温饱、小康建设和实现富裕三个主要阶段,是一个由低水平、基础型向高质量、创新型不断发展的过程;② 乡村振兴本质上是乡村转型发展的一个特殊阶段,是乡村发展演化到一定阶段后,为解决其面临的突出问题以向更高层次迈进的战略选择;③ 2017年中国57.3%的县域乡村振兴综合水平介于0.40~0.50之间,在空间上呈现出明显的东中西地域分异,并具有显著的聚集特征和正相关性;④ 新时代乡村振兴战略的落实重在科学识别乡村振兴的瞄准区域,综合研判乡村发展演化的趋势,系统诊断乡村地域类型的主导制约因素,全面认知城乡耦合互动的逻辑关系,进而采取针对性措施推进农业农村现代化。

关键词: 乡村发展进程, 乡村地域系统, 人地系统科学, 乡村振兴路径, 乡村地理学

Abstract:

China is a large agricultural country, and issues concerning agriculture, rural areas and farmers are closely related to national economic and social development. To achieve the "Two Centenary Goals", rural revitalization strategy has become the choice to resolve unbalanced urban-rural development and inadequate rural development in China. Rural development is a comprehensive process of cycle accumulation and dynamic evolution of rural regional system. Thus, it is of great significance to systematically analyze the process and regional pattern of rural development to scientifically promote the implementation of rural revitalization strategy in the new era. Based on the theory of human-earth areal system and human-earth system science, this study examines the process and features of rural development in China from 1978 to 2050, discusses the internal relationship between rural transformation and rural revitalization, reveals the spatial pattern of the level of county rural revitalization in 2017, and finally puts forward the key problems and countermeasures for rural revitalization in the new era. Results show that the evolution of China's rural development in the period of 1978-2050 can be divided into three stages, i.e. solving the problem of food and clothing (1978-2005), building a well-off society (2005-2020) and realizing prosperity (2020-2050). In general, it is a dynamic and continuous process from low-level and basic-type to high-quality and innovation-type. Rural revitalization is a special stage of rural transformation, and a strategic choice to solve the prominent problem in rural development when it has evolved to a certain stage, thus boosting rural development to a higher stage. In 2017, when rural revitalization strategy was initiated, the level of rural revitalization in 57.3% of the counties in China was between 0.40 and 0.50, and there was an obvious gradient differentiation from the east to the west, with significant clustering characteristics and positive correlation. Specifically, the counties featured by "high-high (H-H)" clustering were mainly distributed in the third step of the terrain and the middle of Sichuan Basin; while the counties featured by "low-low (L-L)" clustering were concentrated in western China except Sichuan Basin, the eastern part of Inner Mongolia and the north of Tianshan Mountains. Due to the regionalism, stage and the difference in constraints of rural development, the focuses of rural revitalization in the new era lie in scientifically identifying the targeting areas of rural revitalization, comprehensively judging the trends of rural development, and systematically diagnosing the dominant constraints of different types of rural areas, so as to take targeted measures to make up for the shortcomings of the modernization of agriculture and rural areas. Besides, it is necessary to fully understand the interactions between urban and rural areas, thus promoting urban-rural integrated development.

Key words: process of rural development, rural regional system, human-earth system science, path for rural revitalization, rural geography