地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (5): 1294-1313.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202105018

• 资源利用与环境演变 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原史前时期交流路线及其演变

侯光良1,2(), 兰措卓玛1, 朱燕1, 庞龙辉1   

  1. 1.青海师范大学青海省自然地理与环境过程重点实验室,西宁 810008
    2.高原科学与可持续发展研究院,西宁 810008
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-04 修回日期:2020-12-22 出版日期:2021-05-25 发布日期:2021-07-25
  • 作者简介:侯光良(1972-), 男, 青海大通人, 教授, 博导, 中国地理学会会员(S110007894M), 主要从事环境演变与人类活动研究。E-mail: hgl20@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA2004010101);青海省高端创新人才千人计划(青人才字[2019]6号)

Communication route and its evolution on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during the prehistoric time

HOU Guangliang1,2(), 1, ZHU Yan1, PANG Longhui1   

  1. 1. College of Geography, Key Laboratory of Physical Geography and Environmental Process, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008, China
    2. Academy of Plateau Science and Sustainability, Xining 810008, China
  • Received:2019-03-04 Revised:2020-12-22 Published:2021-05-25 Online:2021-07-25
  • Supported by:
    The Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA2004010101);Qinghai Province "Thousand Innovative Top Talents Plan"(青人才字[2019]6号)

摘要:

欧亚大陆史前文化交流是当前学术界研究的热点问题,尤其是“一带一路”的国家倡议提出后,青藏高原重要的地理位置确定了其在东西方文化交流中的重要地位。本文基于自然地理因子和不同时期遗址点,在最低成本的控制下实现节点间累积联结的方法,使用GIS(R语言)工具进行空间数值计算,将其结果作为史前时期(新石器—青铜时期)的交流路线。本文重建新石器时期路线27条,总距离约为6000 km;青铜时代30条,总距离约为7800 km。路线的形态由新石器时期的东北—东部—东南—西南边缘呈月牙形环绕发展至青铜时期的由边缘延伸至腹地呈网络化发展的趋势,这是由高原边缘的交流逐步演化成边缘—腹地的交流、并不断强化的表现。重建路线验证了由考古证据支持的农业、驯化动物、彩陶、青铜技术在高原的传播路线,并将其具体化。此外,明确了高原史前交流路线的发展和演变宏观上是受到气候变化的影响,同时受到种植农业技术、驯化动物的传入以及战争等多因素的综合影响。

关键词: 青藏高原, 交流路线, 史前, 空间数值模拟

Abstract:

Eurasia mainland cultural exchange has been at the center of the international concern, especially after the Belt and Road Initiative was proposed. The unique geographical location of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau made it important to strengthen the cultural exchange between the East and the West. This paper uses natural geographical factors and cultural sites in various time periods as data sources, based on cyclic cumulative analysis of the lowest cost path-multipoint connectivity, and GIS spatial analysis (R language) to construct cultural exchange routes from the Neolithic to Bronze Age. We constructed 27 routes in the Neolithic Age with a total length of 6000 km and 30 routes in the Bronze Age with a total length of 7800 km. During the Neolithic Age, the cultural exchange routes mainly exhibited a crescent form along the Northeast-East-Southeast-Southwest margin. By the Bronze Age, the cultural exchange routes expanded to the hinterland in a net form, due to the development of cultural exchange between the settlements. The reconstructed route testified the dissemination path of colored pottery, millet, jade, sheep, wheat and bronze technology, and concretized these archaeologically conceptualized roads. In addition, this paper identified that evolution of the early plateau route was significantly influenced by climate, and also influenced by agricultural technology, introduction of domesticated livestock.

Key words: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, communication route, prehistory, spatial numerical simulation