地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (4): 870-887.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202104007

• 城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于全球价值链的全球化城市网络分析——以苹果手机供应商为例

刘清1(), 杨永春1,2(), 蒋小荣3, 曹宛鹏1, 刘笑杰1   

  1. 1.兰州大学资源环境学院,兰州 730000
    2.兰州大学西部环境教育部重点实验室,兰州 730000
    3.湖北文理学院资源环境与旅游学院,襄阳 441053
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-10 修回日期:2020-07-22 出版日期:2021-04-25 发布日期:2021-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 杨永春(1969-), 男, 陕西白水人, 教授, 博士生导师, 研究方向为城市与区域发展规划。E-mail: yangych@lzu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:刘清(1995-), 女, 甘肃华亭人, 硕士生, 研究方向为城市与区域规划。E-mail: liuq18@lzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41971198);国家自然科学基金项目(41571155)

An analysis of the multidimensional globalizing city networks based on global value chain: A case study of iPhone suppliers

LIU Qing1(), YANG Yongchun1,2(), JIANG Xiaorong3, CAO Wanpeng1, LIU Xiaojie1   

  1. 1. College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems, Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    3. College of Resource Environmental and Tourism, Hubei University of Art and Science, Xiangyang 441053, Hubei, China
  • Received:2020-03-10 Revised:2020-07-22 Published:2021-04-25 Online:2021-06-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971198);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41571155)

摘要:

本文基于2019年苹果手机供应商数据,从全球价值链视角构建全球化城市网络,将具有全球化职能的专业城市与世界城市纳入同一分析框架,运用社会网络与社区发现方法,研究了研发型、生产型、代工服务型城市网络的节点中心性、整体拓扑结构、社群结构及影响机制。结果发现:① 苹果手机零部件的全球化城市网络均具有多中心与多样化、节点等级化、联系外部化特征,网络中“明星”节点高权力—高声望并存且权力总体高于声望;② 研发型城市网络联系最紧密,趋于首位城市分布,小团体结构与集群发育明显。生产型网络关联性最高,网络趋于均匀结构与位序—规模分布。代工服务型网络中心性最高,权力集中在少数城市节点,众多节点易受核心节点控制与支配。③ 研发型城市社区集群最明显,企业通过知识关联效应形成专业化集群,获取本地化经济益处,并通过链式与轮轴式布局建立基于关系接近的跨国网络社区。生产型城市社区集群次之,企业通过经济关联效应形成一般化集群,获取城市化经济益处,通过网络式布局建立基于地理接近的本国内跨行政区网络社区。代工服务型城市社区未发育出明显集群网络,企业通过低成本关联实现规模经济,世界工厂模式形成散点式网络社区。

关键词: 全球化城市网络, 全球价值链, 苹果手机供应商, 社会网络分析, 社区发现

Abstract:

Based on the data of 197 suppliers of iPhone components and parts in 2019, this paper builds multidimensional world city networks from the perspective of global value chains, integrating specialized cities with global functions and the high-class world cities into the same analytical framework, which enriches the research perspective of world city networks in the era of globalization to a certain extent. The purpose of this paper is to expand the research and investigation scope of the existing field of world city networks. By means of social network analysis (i.e. the analysis of centrality, connectedness and network cohesion), rank-size rule and community detection, we study the power and prestige, the overall topological structure, the community structure and influence mechanism of the city networks of R&D-oriented, production-oriented and OEM service-oriented types. The results show that: (1) All the world city networks are characterized by polycentricity and diversification, differentiation of nodes' status and dependence on external connections. The "star" nodes in the network coexist with high power and high prestige, and the power is generally higher than the prestige. (2) The network cohesion and rank of R&D-oriented cities are the highest, and the network tends to show a primate city distribution, and the growth of small group structure and the phenomenon of R&D clusters are obvious. The production-oriented network has the highest connectedness, and it tends to present a rank-size distribution and an equilibrium structure. Its network scale is large, but the ties of many nodes are sparse and decentralized; OEM service-oriented network has the highest relative centrality, and power and information are concentrated in a few city nodes. (3) The cluster characteristics of R&D-oriented city communities are most noticeable. Moreover, the network has significant long-distance knowledge spillover and cooperation behavior. Enterprises form specialized clusters in R&D-type cities through non-tradable interdependence, and obtain the benefits of localization economies and spatial integrated effects. The cluster tendency of production-oriented city communities are relatively obvious. Geographical proximity and spatial dependence are the main factors incubating community structure. Enterprises form generalized clusters through tradable interdependence to obtain the benefits of urbanization economies and distance attenuation effect. No obvious cluster network has been incubated in OEM serviced-oriented city communities. Polarization phenomenon of the inter-community is extremely significant, that is to say, the core city community in Taiwan, China, radiates to other low-level equilibrium communities, forming a radial community structure. Contract manufacturers seek the cities with low labor costs around the world to carry out standardized production, and realize full competition through scale economies, therefore, a scatter-type city network layout structure is formed.

Key words: globalizing city networks, global value chain, iPhone suppliers, social network analysis, community detection