地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (3): 740-752.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202103017

• 环境与生态系统服务 • 上一篇    下一篇

汾渭平原典型城乡PM2.5中多环芳烃特征与健康风险

蔡瑞婷1(), 肖舜1(), 董治宝1, 曹军骥2, 张宁宁2, 刘随心2, 沈振兴3, 徐红梅3, 陶燕4, 李星敏5, 王鑫1, 王雨萌1   

  1. 1.陕西师范大学地理科学与旅游学院,西安 710119
    2.中国科学院地球环境研究所,西安 710061
    3.安交通大学能源与动力学院,西安 710049
    4.兰州大学资源环境学院,兰州 730000
    5.陕西省气象科学研究所,西安 710014
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-03 修回日期:2020-12-20 出版日期:2021-03-25 发布日期:2021-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 肖舜(1981-), 男, 陕西西安人, 副教授, 硕士生导师, 主要从事环境气象与健康地理方面教学和研究工作。E-mail: sxiao@snnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:蔡瑞婷(1994-), 女, 陕西宝鸡人, 硕士, 研究方向为大气污染与环境健康。E-mail: 1215933628@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771220);中央高校基本科研业务费自由探索项目(GK201803054)

Characteristics and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 in the typical urban and rural areas of the Fenwei Plain

CAI Ruiting1(), XIAO Shun1(), DONG Zhibao1, CAO Junji2, ZHANG Ningning2, LIU Suixin2, SHEN Zhenxing3, XU Hongmei3, TAO Yan4, LI Xingmin5, WANG Xin1, WANG Yumeng1   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China
    2. Institute of Earth Environment, CAS, Xi'an 710061, China
    3. School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China
    4. College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    5. Meteorological Institute of Shaanxi Province, Xi'an 710014, China
  • Received:2020-01-03 Revised:2020-12-20 Published:2021-03-25 Online:2021-05-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41771220);Free Exploration Project of the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(GK201803054)

摘要:

为查明汾渭平原典型城乡地区重度污染天气PM2.5中多环芳烃(PAHs)污染特征及其人群健康效应,本文于2018—2019年冬季分别选取西安和陇县作为城乡对比参照点,采集了重度污染天气PM2.5颗粒态气溶胶样品。利用气相色谱—质谱联用仪(GC-MS)检测样品中具有“三致效应”的15种PAHs含量及组分特征,使用特征比值法及主成分法进行PAHs源解析,并分析了气象因素对PAHs质量浓度的可能影响,通过对苯并芘(BaP)等效毒性浓度和终生超额致癌风险度(ILCR)的计算,对人群健康风险进行评估。结果表明:西安与陇县在重度污染天气条件下PM2.5中15种PAHs总平均质量浓度分别为243.78 ng/m3、609.39 ng/m3,其中4~6环PAHs占比最高;且PAHs浓度与气温、气压及风速呈显著负相关,与相对湿度则无明显相关性。西安PAHs污染主要来自燃烧源与交通排放源,而煤炭及生物质燃烧是造成陇县PAHs质量浓度偏高的主要原因。健康风险评估结果显示,重污染天气下陇县人群通过呼吸引发的致癌风险要高于西安,女性致癌风险高于男性,成人致癌风险高于儿童,且两地区成人ILCR值均超过风险阈值,存在潜在致癌风险,儿童则无明显致癌风险。

关键词: PM2.5, 多环芳烃, 重污染天气, 污染特征, 健康风险, 汾渭平原

Abstract:

In order to investigate the pollution characteristics and human health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in heavy polluted weather in the typical urban and rural areas of the Fenwei Plain, PM2.5 samples were collected from Xi'an and Longxian in the winter of 2018-2019. The mass concentrations of 15 PAHs characterized by carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and teratogenicity in the samples were determined using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The source of PAHs was analyzed by the diagnostic ratio and principal component method and the possible relation between PAHs mass concentrations and meteorological parameters was elaborated. In addition, human health risk caused by PAHs in PM2.5 was assessed through the equivalent carcinogenic concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The results showed that the average mass concentrations of PAHs in PM2.5 in heavy polluted weather in Xi'an and Longxian were 243.78 μg/m3 and 609.39 μg/m3, respectively, and 4-6 rings of PAHs had the highest proportion of the total. Moreover, PAHs concentrations had a significant negative correlation with atmospheric temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind speed, but irrelevant with relative humidity. Combustion source and automobile exhaust emissions were the main factors contributing to the high concentration of PAHs in Xi'an, while coal and biomass burning were the main factors contributing most to PAHs of Longxian. Health risk assessment results revealed that the carcinogenic risk caused by breathing during heavy polluted weather was higher in Longxian than that in Xi'an and the cancer risk for females was higher than that for males, and the cancer risk for adults was higher than that for children. In addition, the ILCR value of adults in both urban and rural areas exceeded the risk threshold recommended by EPA and had potential carcinogenic risks, while there was no obvious carcinogenic risk for children.

Key words: pollution characteristics, health risk, the Fenwei Plain, PM2.5, PAHs, heavy polluted weather, pollution characteristics, health risk, the Fenwei Plain