地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (3): 663-679.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202103012

• 环境与生态系统服务 • 上一篇    下一篇

区域环境功能管控区划方法及应用

陈妤凡1,2(), 徐勇1,2()   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-10 修回日期:2020-12-21 出版日期:2021-03-25 发布日期:2021-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 徐勇(1964-), 男, 陕西榆林人, 博士, 研究员, 博士生导师, 主要从事区域可持续发展、人地关系机理模拟、土地利用、农业与乡村发展等领域的研究工作。E-mail: xuy@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:陈妤凡(1994-), 女, 浙江舟山人, 博士生, 主要从事区域经济与可持续发展研究。E-mail: chenyf.16s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA23020101)

Technical method and application of the regional environmental function management and control zoning

CHEN Yufan1,2(), XU Yong1,2()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-01-10 Revised:2020-12-21 Published:2021-03-25 Online:2021-05-25
  • Supported by:
    The Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA23020101)

摘要:

以生产、生活污染源为对象进行环境空间管控是新时期区域环境保护治理和国土精细化管治的新路径。本文在明确区域环境功能管控区划的概念、目的和原则的基础上,科学识别污染物与污染源空间,提出管控单元和分级管控区的空间结构模式,建立环境污染物的单项评价指标算法和综合集成模型,形成区域环境功能管控区划技术方法,并在浙江省嵊州市进行县级尺度的实证应用研究。研究表明,嵊州市共有垃圾填埋场、污水处理厂、高污染型工业场所、畜禽养殖场、居民居住场所等18个管控单元类型,按集成特征值高低及污染排放特征可归类至Ⅴ级、Ⅳ级、Ⅲ级、Ⅱ级、Ⅰ级和〇级管控区。Ⅴ级和Ⅳ级管控区以工矿业生产空间为主,污染排放量大,对水体、大气和土壤等影响程度高,存在危害性,是源头管控的重点。Ⅲ级管控区覆盖生活空间,污染排放中等,影响大气和水体,可控性相对较弱。Ⅱ级管控区有少量的农业固废和废水排放,存在面源污染风险。Ⅰ级和〇级管控区内部无环境污染源,强调生态保护的重要程度。其中,〇级管控区是生态保护红线范围,实施最严格的环境保护制度,要求“零排放,零污染”。区域环境功能管控区划方法具有可操作性,可为地方开展中长期环境保护与发展规划提供新的方法。

关键词: 区域环境功能, 管控单元, 分级管控区, 污染源空间, 嵊州市

Abstract:

Environmental governance plays a pivotal role in promoting the high-quality development of environment, and the implementation of source control and zoning management is the foundation of the refined governance of environmental space. This paper aims to put forward the theoretical and technical methods of regional environmental function management and control zoning, and carry out an empirical study on Shengzhou city, Zhejiang province. First, a spatial structure model of the environmental pollution sources (EPSs) for human activities, which is composed of control units (CUs) and hierarchical control areas (HCAs), has been formed and identified. Then, the solid waste, air pollutants and water pollutants are selected as the main pollutants, and the single evaluation and weighted sum have been measured for each CU. Finally, according to the spatial classification of the CUs and the integrated eigenvalues, key countermeasures and supporting projects of each HCA are proposed. The main results are as follows: (1) Shengzhou city has a total of 18 CUs, which can be divided into 6 HCAs. HACs of levels Ⅴ and Ⅳ are the areas where pollutants are discharged intensively, with integrated eigenvalues of 11 and 10 respectively. The CUs, including refuse landfill, sewage-treatment plant, high-pollution industrial zone, livestock and poultry farm, mining area, and basic industrial zone, have hugh impact on water and atmosphere, and have great hazards. It is necessary to promote the resource utilization of industrial and mining production space in the key area of environmental governance. (2) The emissions of pollutants in the HACs of levels Ⅲ and Ⅱ are medium or even less. The CUs of level-Ⅲ HAC cover urban settlements, rural settlements and transportation land, with integrated eigenvalues of 6 and 7. It is important to improve the collection and treatment technology of solid waste and sewage in all living space. In addition, HAC of level-Ⅱ includes two CUs, which are cultivated land and garden plot, with integrated eigenvalues of 4. It has a small amount of agricultural solid waste and sewage discharge, therefore, it is urgent to solve the problems of non-point source pollution and eutrophication. (3) HACs of level-Ⅰ is composed of forest land, garden land, water area, bare land and other ecological space, with more emphasis on ecological protection function. Large scale industrialization and urbanization are prohibited in the area. HAC of level 〇 highly overlaps ecological redline, which requires complete prohibition of human activities and the elimination of external environmental impact.

Key words: regional environmental function, control unit, hierarchical control area, environmental pollution source, Shengzhou city