地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (2): 487-502.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202102017

• 产业与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

北方农牧交错区人地系统演化特征与影响机理——以内蒙古达茂旗为例

李文龙1,2(), 匡文慧2, 吕君1, 赵中华3()   

  1. 1.内蒙古财经大学 内蒙古经济数据分析与挖掘重点实验室,呼和浩特 010070
    2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    3.上海师范大学旅游学院,上海 200234
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-15 修回日期:2020-12-22 出版日期:2021-02-25 发布日期:2021-04-25
  • 作者简介:李文龙(1986-), 男, 内蒙古赤峰人, 博士, 副教授, 主要从事农牧交错区社会—生态系统可持续发展研究。E-mail: nmgliwenlong@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(18AZD021);国家社会科学基金项目(17CGL024);教育部重大攻关项目(19JZD014)

Adaptive evolution mechanism of rural human-land system in farming-and-pastoral areas of northern China

LI Wenlong1,2(), KUANG Wenhui2, LYU Jun1, ZHAO Zhonghua3()   

  1. 1. School of Resources and Environmental Economics, Inner Mongolia University of Finance and Economics, Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Economic Data Analysis and Mining, Hohhot 010070, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Tourism School, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
  • Received:2020-02-15 Revised:2020-12-22 Published:2021-02-25 Online:2021-04-25
  • Supported by:
    National Social Science Foundation of China(18AZD021);National Social Science Foundation of China(17CGL024);Major Project of the Ministry of Education of China(19JZD014)

摘要:

社会—生态系统适应性循环理论为理解人地系统结构与功能演变提供了新思路与分析框架。本文采用风险—适应能力指数评估乡村人地系统适应性,构建气候变化与政策实施双重驱动的农牧复合型乡村人地系统适应性评价体系,对1952—2017年达茂旗建旗以来乡村人地系统适应性循环演化的阶段、特征、主控因子及影响机理进行研究。结果显示:① 乡村人地系统经历了重组—快速发展阶段(1952—2002年),人口数量增长260%,耕地面积增长13%,牲畜数量增长134%,草场面积退化增加了16.33%;快速发展—稳定守恒阶段(2003—2010年),人口数量增长2.8%,耕地面积减少2.3%,牲畜数量减少13.6%,草场退化面积减少10.7%;稳定守恒—释放阶段(2011—2017年),人口数量减少2.6%,耕地数量减少0.2%,牲畜数量减少10.6%,草场退化面积减少3.8%。② 乡村人地系统适应性指数时间上呈现出缓慢上升(-0.016~0.031)、缓慢下降(0.031~0.003)、快速上升(0.003~0.088)的变化过程,空间上呈现“中部高度适应、北部中度适应、南部低度适应”格局。③ 1990—2000年系统适应性演化主控因子是人均有效灌溉面积(22.31%)、人均牲畜头数(23.47%),2005年是土地沙化程度(25.06%)、土地利用强度(21.27%),2010—2017年是农牧民人均收入(20.08%)、人均牲畜数量(18.52%)。④ 在气候暖干化与政策实施驱动下,农牧户与乡村社区两个尺度主体相互联系构成了乡村人地系统适应性循环演化层级结构,尺度间的关联作用影响着不同尺度主体适应行为,从而影响系统适应性循环演化趋势,使系统结构与功能呈现“协调—不协调”的循环往复波动发展态势。同时,小尺度的农牧户生计适应行也深刻影响着乡村人地系统未来的演化方向。

关键词: 乡村人地系统, 适应性循环, 影响机理, 北方农牧交错区

Abstract:

The theory on the cyclic adaptaion between society and ecosystem sheds new light on the evolution and internal structure of human-land system. This paper introduces the risk index (RI) and adaptation capacity index (ACI) to evaluate the rural human-land system, and sets up an evaluation index system for the adaptability of rural human-land system, under the effects of climate change and policy implementation. On this basis, the stages, features, control factors, and evolution mechanism were examined for the adaptability of rural human-land system in Darhan Mumingan United Banner from 1952 to 2017. The main results are as follows: (1) The evolution of the rural human-land system can be divided into three stages, namely, the reorganization and rapid development stage from 1952 to 2002 (population: +260%; cultivated land area: +13%; livestock: +134%; degradated grassland area: +16.33%), the rapid to stable development stage from 2003 to 2010 (population: +2.8%; cultivated land area: -2.3%; livestock: -13.6%; degradated grassland area: -10.7%), and the stable to release stage from 2011 to 2017 (population: -2.6%; cultivated land area: -0.2%; livestock: -10.6%; degradated grassland area: -3.8%). (2) With the elapse of time, the ACI of the rural human-land system went through a slow rise (-0.016-0.031), a slow decline (0.031-0.003), and a rapid rise (0.003-0.088). In terms of space, the adaptability is high in the middle, moderate in the north, and low in the south. (3) The adaptability evolution of the rural human-land system was mainly controlled by the per-capita effective irrigation area (22.31%) and the per-capita number of livestocks (23.47%) from 1990 to 2000, the desertification area of land (25.06%) and the land use intensity (21.27%) from 2000 to 2005, and the per-capita income of farmers and herdsmen (20.08%) and the per-capita number of livestocks (18.52%) from 2010 to 2007. (4) Under the effects of climate change and policy implementation, the cyclic adaptaion of the rural human-land system was propelled by the interactions between two kinds of subjects: farmers and herdsmen, and rural communities. The interaction affects the adaptive behavior of the two kinds of subjects, which in turn drives the cyclic evolution of the system. As a result, the system structure and functions developed alternatively between coordinated and uncoordinated states. Small-scale adaptive behaviors of farmers and herdsmen have a profound impact on the evolution of rural human-land system.

Key words: rural human-land system, adaptability, evolutionary mechanism, agricultural-and-pastoral areas