地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (2): 383-397.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202102010

• 人口与城市研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于感知的北京居民职住空间关系生成机理

张学波1(), 宋金平2(), 于伟1, 王振波3   

  1. 1.曲阜师范大学地理与旅游学院 日照市国土空间规划与生态建设重点实验室,日照 276826
    2.北京师范大学地理科学学部,北京 100875
    3.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-18 修回日期:2020-11-17 出版日期:2021-02-25 发布日期:2021-04-25
  • 作者简介:张学波(1982-), 男, 山东冠县人, 博士, 副教授, 主要从事城市与区域发展研究。E-mail: xuebozhang@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42071150);国家自然科学基金项目(41771181);国家自然科学基金项目(41271132);山东省社会科学规划研究项目(19CJJJ02);山东省高等学校青创科技支持计划(2020RWG010)

Formation mechanism of Beijing's jobs-housing spatial relationship based on residents' perception

ZHANG Xuebo1(), SONG Jinping2(), YU Wei1, WANG Zhenbo3   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Tourism, Qufu Normal University, Rizhao Key Laboratory of Territory Spatial Planning and Ecological Construction, Rizhao 276826, Shandong, China
    2. Faculty ofGeographical Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2019-07-18 Revised:2020-11-17 Published:2021-02-25 Online:2021-04-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(42071150);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41771181);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41271132);Social Science Foundation of Shandong(19CJJJ02);Youth Science and Technology Innovation Program of Shandong Education Department(2020RWG010)

摘要:

职住空间关系是洞悉城市功能空间结构并揭示城市成长与演化规律的重要研究视域。本文构建了生活实践及其感知视角下的居民职住空间关系生成路径分析框架和结构变量作用路径假设模型,基于居民职住空间关系感知调查数据,借助结构方程模型方法,从影响因素和驱动机制两个方面剖析了北京居民职住空间关系的生成机理。研究表明:① 房价和住房支付能力在居民职住区位决策中起决定性作用;相比物质性居住环境条件,政策与制度、邻里状况以及居民的观念和发展期望等非物质性因素对职住空间关系形成的影响更为显著。② 政府行为下的土地供给和户籍制度、城市演化中的圈层蔓延式扩张和产业空间转移、市场机制下的就业分布和房产溢价以及居民的经济状况和价值取向是职住空间关系形成的微观主导性驱动因素。③ 在居民职住关系的生成过程中,政府发挥了主导性作用,城市空间重构是政府向市场传导信息的中介,市场起了助推器的作用,居民则基于自身的住房支付能力对职住区位进行主动调整或胁迫适应,并通过职住空间诉求进行职住关系状态和信息的反馈。研究结论丰富了中国大城市职住空间关系形成的规律性认识,对北京市住房、交通、公共服务供给以及城市规划建设具有参考价值。

关键词: 职住空间关系, 居民感知, 生成机理, 北京

Abstract:

The jobs-housing relationship is an important research field to understand the spatial structure of urban functions and reveal the law of urban growth and evolution. In the paper, we first established a framework and a hypothesis model to analyze the jobs-housing relationship from the perspective of residents' life practice and their perception. Based on survey data of residents' perception in Beijing, we analyzed the formation mechanism of the jobs-housing spatial relationship from two aspects of influencing factors and driving mechanism by means of structural equation model. The results show that: (1) housing prices and housing affordability played a critical role in residents' decisions on jobs-housing location. Compared with the material living environment, the non-material factors, such as policies and systems, neighborhood conditions, residents' conception and development expectations, had more significant impact on the formation of the jobs-housing spatial relationship. (2) Land supply and household registration system formulated by the government, the circle-sprawling expansion and industrial spatial transfer in urban spatial structure evolution, the employment distribution and real estate premium under the market mechanism, as well as residents' income and cultural value orientation were the micro-dominant driving factors. (3) The government played a leading role in the formation of residents' jobs-housing spatial relationship in Beijing. Urban spatial reconstruction was the intermediary for the government to transmit information to the market. The market played a role of booster for the real estate premium and the aggravation of jobs-housing imbalance. The residents actively adjusted or were coercively adapted to the jobs-housing location. At the same time, the situation of the jobs-housing relationship could be transmitted to the government and market through the residents' appeal. The government may formulate some policies to prevent the excessive rising price of real estate and strengthen the construction of transportation facilities. The conclusions have enriched the study on the formation mechanism of jobs-housing spatial relationship in megacities in China, and are valuable for the planning of housing, transportation and public service supply in Beijing.

Key words: jobs-housing spatial relationship, residents' perception, formation mechanism, Beijing