地理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (1): 15-29.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202101002

• 理论探索 • 上一篇    下一篇

探讨过去人地关系演变机制的“支点”概念模型

董广辉1,2(), 仇梦晗1, 李若1, 陈发虎2,3   

  1. 1.兰州大学资源环境学院西部环境教育部重点实验室,兰州 730000
    2.中国科学院青藏高原地球科学卓越创新中心,北京100101
    3.中国科学院青藏高原研究所高寒生态重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-24 修回日期:2020-10-12 出版日期:2021-01-25 发布日期:2021-03-25
  • 作者简介:董广辉(1977-), 男, 黑龙江伊春人, 博士, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事环境考古与环境变化研究。E-mail: ghdong@lzu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2018YFA0606402);国家自然科学基金项目(41825001);国家自然科学基金项目(41671077)

Using the Fulcrum Cognitive Model to explore the mechanismof past human-land co-evolution

DONG Guanghui1,2(), QIU Menghan1, LI Ruo1, CHEN Fahu2,3   

  1. 1. MOE Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental System, College of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    2. CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Alpine Ecology, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2019-12-24 Revised:2020-10-12 Published:2021-01-25 Online:2021-03-25
  • Supported by:
    National Key R&D Program of China(2018YFA0606402);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41825001);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41671077)

摘要:

人地关系演变的历史、规律和机制是地理学研究的重要科学问题。在人类社会演化的不同阶段,人与环境相互作用的模式存在显著差异,揭示人地关系在时间维度上的演变轨迹和机制可为有效衔接古今人地关系研究提供重要依据。基于对过去人地关系研究案例的分析和总结,我们提出“支点”概念模型尝试解释人地关系演变的规律和机制。当特定区域人口数量增长到一定程度时,自然生态系统和人类社会系统达到平衡状态,随后的气候环境变化和人类活动变化都有可能打破其平衡状态。人类社会系统在面对生存环境变化压力时可能出现两种不同方式的响应:① 通过人口数量的调节适应生存环境变化而达到新的平衡,其特点是人与环境相互作用的模式(人类社会与自然生态系统平衡“支点”位置)不变;② 通过人类社会组织结构或技术革新方式使社会适应生存环境变化的“韧性”增强,体现为人与环境相互作用模式发生改变。随着时间的推移,社会韧性呈增强趋势,人地关系演变的主导因素也整体呈现由自然因素向人为因素的偏移。最后,以河南、山西和陕西三省仰韶文化时期(约公元前5000—公元前3000年)至周代(公元前1046—公元前256年)的人地关系研究为例,运用“支点”概念模型分析了其演变机制。

关键词: 人与环境相互作用, “支点”概念模型, 气候环境变化, 人类活动, 社会韧性

Abstract:

The trajectory, pattern, and mechanism of the human-land co-evolution process is a critical issue in the field of human geography. The pattern of human-environment interaction has varied significantly during different phases of human evolution, suggesting a series of changes in the driving force of human-land co-evolution. Although a variety of underlying mechanisms specific to the key periods of human history (e.g., Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and historical ages) have been intensively investigated, there are still significant gaps in the widely accepted model of the fundamental law that governs human-land co-evolution across human history. In this paper we propose the Fulcrum Cognitive Model (FCM), with the objective of disentangling the mechanism of human-land co-evolution. The FCM focuses on the equilibrium between the natural ecosystem and human social system, which can be disturbed by both climatic/environmental change and human activities, and restored by an adjustment of the human social system. Moreover, we propose a "quantitative-change equilibrium pattern" and "qualitative-change equilibrium pattern" on the basis of FCM, to further describe the mechanism of past human-land co-evolution in different contexts. In the former pattern, a new equilibrium between the natural ecosystem and human social system is rebuilt by the corresponding changes in population size, without a shift in the fulcrum position. In contrast, in the latter pattern, societies improve their social resilience to the deterioration of the living environment through social and/or technological changes. In this case, the fulcrum position of the original equilibrium shifts and the pattern of human-environment interaction is transformed. Social resilience is gradually strengthened during the evolutionary process and the dominant influencing factor moves from natural causes towards anthropogenic factors. To test its feasibility, we applied the model to the changing patterns of the human-land relationship in Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Henan provinces in central north China between the Yangshao period (~5000-3000 BCE) and Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BCE), based on a comprehensive analysis of updated archaeological and paleoclimatic data. The results suggested that the mechanism controlling the human-land relationship during ~4000-2600 BCE and 2600-256 BCE could be explained by the "quantitative-change equilibrium pattern" and "qualitative-change equilibrium pattern", respectively. The mechanism of human-land co-evolution in the past is very complicated and the interaction of these two patterns may vary in terms of its spatiotemporal scale, which will require further study in the future.

Key words: human-environmental interaction, Fulcrum Cognitive Model (FCM), climatic and environmental change, human activity, social resilience