地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (12): 2759-2776.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202012015

• 城市与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

全球高科技产品贸易结构演化及影响因素

段德忠1,2(), 杜德斌1,2()   

  1. 1.华东师范大学全球创新与发展研究院,上海 200062
    2.华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200241
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-05 修回日期:2020-08-11 出版日期:2020-12-25 发布日期:2021-02-25
  • 作者简介:段德忠(1989-), 男, 江苏溧阳人, 副教授, 中国地理学会会员(S110010030M), 研究方向为全球科技地理。E-mail: dzduan@geo.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(19ZDA087);国家自然科学基金项目(41901139);国家自然科学基金项目(41901152);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金

Structural evolution of global high-tech trade system: Products, networks and influencing factors

DUAN Dezhong1,2(), DU Debin1,2()   

  1. 1. Institute for Global Innovation and Development, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. School of Urban & Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2019-10-05 Revised:2020-08-11 Published:2020-12-25 Online:2021-02-25
  • Supported by:
    National Social Science Foundation of China(19ZDA087);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41901139);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41901152);Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities

摘要:

为清晰刻画全球高科技产品贸易体系变迁,本文利用世界银行以及联合国商品贸易数据库中2000—2017年高科技产品贸易数据,从产品结构、网络结构和影响因素3个方面探讨了全球高科技产品贸易结构的演化态势。研究发现:① 产品结构上,以电信设备为主的电子通讯产品主导全球高科技贸易发展,但在国家尺度上,化学产品和武器产品是大部分国家(地区)的进口依赖产品或出口优势产品;② 拓扑结构上,全球高科技产品贸易网络持续扩张,联系紧密,是一典型的“小世界”网络,并发育出稳定的“核心—边缘”式的等级层次结构;③ 空间结构上,全球高科技产品贸易格局呈现出由欧洲—北美主导向由东亚主导转变,贸易最大国也由美国转变为中国,网络空间结构也呈现出由以美国为核心的“双拱”格局向以中国为核心的“多拱”格局转变,但美国依然在多种高科技产品贸易网络中占据核心地位;④ 影响因素上,贸易规模、经济邻近性和文化邻近性对全球高科技产品贸易网络演化皆具有一定的正向作用,地理距离对全球高科技产品贸易网络的演化起到明显的负向作用。

关键词: 高科技贸易, 产品结构, 拓扑结构, 空间结构, 影响因素

Abstract:

Since 2018, with the major adjustment of the global political and economic structure, Sino-US relations, which take trade friction as the representation and science and technology competition as the essence, have become increasingly tense. Based on this, this paper characterizes the evolution of global high-tech products trade structure from three aspects of product structure, network structure and influencing factors, and draws some conclusions. First of all, in terms of product structure, global high-tech trade is increasingly concentrated on electronic communication products based on telecommunications equipment. However, on the national scale, chemical products and armament products are not only the dependence products of most countries (regions) on imports, but also the superior export products of most countries (regions). Second, in terms of topology, the global high-tech product trade network continues to expand and is closely linked. It is a typical small-world network and develops a stable "core-edge" hierarchical structure. Third, in terms of spatial structure, the global trade pattern of high-tech products has changed from Europe-North America dominated to East Asia dominated, and also the largest trade country has changed from the United States to China. In addition, the spatial structure has changed from the "double arch" structure with the United States as the core to the "multi-arch" pattern with China as the core, but the United States still occupies a central position in the trade network of various high-tech products. Fourth, in terms of influencing factors, trade scale, economic proximity and cultural proximity have positive effects on the evolution of global high-tech products trade network, while geographical distance has an obvious negative effect. The four factors of political stability, openness, infrastructure and technological innovation only pass the significance test on the importing country (region), while the economic scale only passes the significance test on the exporting country (region). The technological gap is one of the driving forces for the evolution of the global high-tech product trade network.

Key words: high-tech trade, product structure, topological structure, spatial structure, influencing factor