地理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 75 ›› Issue (11): 2396-2407.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202011009

• 土地利用与农业发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国草畜平衡状态时空演变指示的草地生态保护格局

黄麟1(), 翟俊2(), 祝萍1,3, 郑瑜晗1,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 生态环境部卫星环境应用中心,北京 100094
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-09 修回日期:2020-08-11 出版日期:2020-11-25 发布日期:2021-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 翟俊
  • 作者简介:黄麟(1981-), 女, 副研究员, 主要从事土地利用变化及其生态效应研究。E-mail: huanglin@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK0404);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20020401)

Spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of livestock-carrying pressure in China and its implications for grassland ecosystem conservation pattern

HUANG Lin1(), ZHAI Jun2(), ZHU Ping1,3, ZHENG Yuhan1,3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Satellite Environment Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100094, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2019-09-09 Revised:2020-08-11 Online:2020-11-25 Published:2021-01-25
  • Contact: ZHAI Jun
  • Supported by:
    The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program(2019QZKK0404);Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA20020401)

摘要:

中国草原牧区作为重要生态安全屏障和草地畜牧业生产基地,其草畜平衡状态直接影响草地退化与恢复,进而影响草地生态系统服务能力的强弱。本文分析了2000—2015年主要草原牧区草地植被覆盖、牧草供给、草畜平衡状态的时空变化特征,深入探讨草地退化与恢复及载畜压力下草地生态系统保护与恢复空间格局。结果表明:过去16年主要草原牧区草地面积净减少约163万hm2,6.7%的草地出现植被覆盖退化,而5.4%的草地呈现植被覆盖明显恢复。天然草地牧草供给量以增加为主,年增率约0.3 kg/hm2,然而其载畜压力亦持续增加,不考虑补饲的载畜压力指数高达3.8,除内蒙古东北部、青藏高原中部仍有载畜潜力,其余多处于超载状态;考虑实际冷季补饲的载畜压力指数约3.1,内蒙古中东部有所缓解;假设冷季全额补饲则载畜压力指数减至1.9,内蒙古、青藏高原等区域明显缓解。叠加上述数据,本文针对自然保护地、牧区、半农半牧区和农区等不同区域的草地生态保护格局,提出了平衡草地生态保护与畜牧生产利用的不同发展策略。

关键词: 草地退化与恢复, 牧草供给, 载畜压力, 草地生态保护, 中国草原牧区

Abstract:

Being a key ecological security barrier and production base for grassland animal husbandry in China, the balance between grassland forage supply and livestock-carrying pressure in China's pasture regions directly affects grassland degradation and restoration, thereby impacting grassland ecosystem services. This paper analyzes the spatiotemporal variation in grassland vegetation coverage, forage supply, and the balance between grassland forage supply and livestock-carrying pressure in China's pasture regions from 2000 to 2015. We then discuss the spatial pattern of grassland ecological conservation under the impacts of grassland degradation and restoration, and livestock-carrying pressure. Over the last 16 years, the total grassland area in China's pasture regions decreased by 16,000 km2, with vegetation coverage degraded in 6.7% of grasslands but significantly restored in 5.4% of grasslands. The provisioning of forage by natural grassland mainly increased over time, with an annual growth rate of approximately 0.3 kg/hm2, but livestock-carrying pressure also increased continuously. The livestock-carrying pressure index (without any supplementary feeding) reached as high as 3.8. Apart from the potential livestock carrying capacity in northeastern Inner Mongolia and the central Tibetan Plateau, that in most parts of China's pasture regions is currently overburdened. Considering the actual supplementary feeding during the cold season, the livestock-carrying pressure index is about 3.1, with the livestock-carrying pressure mitigated in central and eastern Inner Mongolia. Assuming full supplemental feeding in the cold season, livestock-carrying pressure index will fall to 1.9, thus significantly alleviating pressure in Inner Mongolia and the Tibetan Plateau. Based on these data, we propose different conservation and development strategies to balance grassland ecological conservation and animal husbandry production in different regions, namely nature reserves, pastoral areas, semi-farming and semi-pastoral areas, and farming areas, according to prevailing patterns of grassland ecological protection.

Key words: grassland degradation and restoration, forage supply, livestock-carrying pressure, grassland ecosystem conservation, China's pasture regions